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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 16 for type of smile such as that whether alone, or in the perceived or actual presence of others, participants did not show a significant change in total number of smiles (F (2, 64) = 0.37, p = n.s.). Hypothesis 2a proposed that nonenjoyment smiles would increase with sociality of condition, but there would be no difference in enjoyment smiles across conditions. This hypothesis predicts a significant interaction of smile type with sociality. Although Table 1 seemingly shows a slight increase in the number of smiles from the alone condition to the high social contact condition, the interaction between sociality and type of smile was not statistically significant (F (2, 64) = 0.91, p = n.s.). In other words, neither nonenjoyment smiles nor enjoyment smiles increased with increased sociality of condition. Thus, Hypothesis 2a was not supported. In fact the only statistically significant finding in this 3 x (2) ANOVA was a main effect for type of smile, where across all conditions, nonenjoyment smiles occur more frequently than enjoyment smiles (F (1, 64) = 26.36, p < .001). Hypothesis 2b tested the neurocultural perspective by predicting that the number of enjoyment smiles should correlate with the participants self-report of happiness. Hypothesis 3 tested the universalist perspective by predicting that all smiles should correlate with participants’ self-report of happiness. We correlated the total number of enjoyment smiles, nonenjoyment smiles, and the combined total of both kinds of smiles with participants self-report of happiness taken at the end of the videotape (DES2). The results for all three conditions and types of smiles are shown in Table 2. These results show that across all 3 conditions (N=67), the total number of smiles did correlate significantly with self-report of emotion (Pearson r = 0.38, p < .01), which supports the

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
16
for type of smile such as that whether alone, or in the perceived or actual presence of
others, participants did not show a significant change in total number of smiles (F (2, 64)
= 0.37, p = n.s.).
Hypothesis 2a proposed that nonenjoyment smiles would increase with sociality
of condition, but there would be no difference in enjoyment smiles across conditions.
This hypothesis predicts a significant interaction of smile type with sociality. Although
Table 1 seemingly shows a slight increase in the number of smiles from the alone
condition to the high social contact condition, the interaction between sociality and type
of smile was not statistically significant (F (2, 64) = 0.91, p = n.s.). In other words,
neither nonenjoyment smiles nor enjoyment smiles increased with increased sociality of
condition. Thus, Hypothesis 2a was not supported. In fact the only statistically significant
finding in this 3 x (2) ANOVA was a main effect for type of smile, where across all
conditions, nonenjoyment smiles occur more frequently than enjoyment smiles (F (1, 64)
= 26.36, p < .001).
Hypothesis 2b tested the neurocultural perspective by predicting that the number
of enjoyment smiles should correlate with the participants self-report of happiness.
Hypothesis 3 tested the universalist perspective by predicting that all smiles should
correlate with participants’ self-report of happiness. We correlated the total number of
enjoyment smiles, nonenjoyment smiles, and the combined total of both kinds of smiles
with participants self-report of happiness taken at the end of the videotape (DES2). The
results for all three conditions and types of smiles are shown in Table 2. These results
show that across all 3 conditions (N=67), the total number of smiles did correlate
significantly with self-report of emotion (Pearson r = 0.38, p < .01), which supports the


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