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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 18 (associated with positive emotion) and nonenjoyment smiles (communicative gestures, not associated with felt emotion) and because it relies on the an unobtrusive measure of smiling to make this distinction (FACS, Ekman & Friesen, 1978). The Effect of Social Contact on Smiling In considering Hypothesis 1— overall smiling will increase monotonically with sociality—and Hypothesis 2a— nonenjoyment smiles in particular will increase with sociality of viewing condition— we found no significant increase across conditions in frequency of overall smiling or for either types of smiles (enjoyment or nonenjoyment). This would suggest that social contact does not significantly affect frequency of non- enjoyment smiling when viewing a humorous videotape. However, this does not suggest that culture and sociality do not affect facial expression. In contrast, the lack of relationship between nonenjoyment smiles and sociality (Hypthesis 2a) may be accounted for because about half the participants mentioned that they felt they were being observed through the one-way mirror. This might have caused participants to regulate their expressive behavior (Kleck et al, 1976) regardless of the manipulated sociality of the condition. Thus, participants might have demonstrated socially appropriate smiling behavior, in addition to smiles that reflected their enjoyment, even when alone as a result of believing they were being observed. Correlations Between Self-Report of Happiness and Smiling Findings support Hypothesis 2b, which proposed that there would be a positive correlation between enjoyment smiles and self-report of happiness, but no correlation between nonenjoyment smiles and self-report of happiness. These results support the neurocultural perspective by confirming the distinction made by Ekman and Friesen

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
18
(associated with positive emotion) and nonenjoyment smiles (communicative gestures,
not associated with felt emotion) and because it relies on the an unobtrusive measure of
smiling to make this distinction (FACS, Ekman & Friesen, 1978).
The Effect of Social Contact on Smiling
In considering Hypothesis 1— overall smiling will increase monotonically with
sociality—and Hypothesis 2a— nonenjoyment smiles in particular will increase with
sociality of viewing condition— we found no significant increase across conditions in
frequency of overall smiling or for either types of smiles (enjoyment or nonenjoyment).
This would suggest that social contact does not significantly affect frequency of non-
enjoyment smiling when viewing a humorous videotape. However, this does not suggest
that culture and sociality do not affect facial expression. In contrast, the lack of
relationship between nonenjoyment smiles and sociality (Hypthesis 2a) may be accounted
for because about half the participants mentioned that they felt they were being observed
through the one-way mirror. This might have caused participants to regulate their
expressive behavior (Kleck et al, 1976) regardless of the manipulated sociality of the
condition. Thus, participants might have demonstrated socially appropriate smiling
behavior, in addition to smiles that reflected their enjoyment, even when alone as a result
of believing they were being observed.
Correlations Between Self-Report of Happiness and Smiling
Findings support Hypothesis 2b, which proposed that there would be a positive
correlation between enjoyment smiles and self-report of happiness, but no correlation
between nonenjoyment smiles and self-report of happiness. These results support the
neurocultural perspective by confirming the distinction made by Ekman and Friesen


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