All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 20 using strangers in addition to or instead of friends in a replication of this study to explore further what may be driving this increase in emotion. One thing clearly supported by this research is the importance of distinguishing between different types of smiles. There is a strong positive correlation between the self- report of the emotion of happiness and enjoyment smiles that does not appear in nonenjoyment smiles. It was only by making this distinction that our results were able to disconfirm Fridlund’s (1991) finding that there is no relationship between smiling and emotion, and that smiles are solely communicative, voluntary behaviors that are culturally defined. Conclusion Are smiles expressions of a universal emotional state, or culturally relative communication gestures? Our study found that question to be a false dichotomy. Yes, some smiles are expressions of an emotional state of happiness. But also, yes, some smiles are relative communication gestures. The important questions for research are whether we can tell these smiles apart, and why should we bother? It seems clear based on this work, which followed on previous work (see review by Frank, 2003, and Frank & Ekman, 1993), that we can tell these different types of smiles apart. The enjoyment smile not only visually appears different, but can be reliably measured by trained coders. We should bother to make this distinction between types of smiles should be made because research has shown that the presence or absence of enjoyments smiles in person’s communicative repertoire reliably predicts a variety of outcomes, ranging from psychotherapeutic health to successful interpersonal relationships (see Ekman & Rosenberg, 1997, for a review). In other words, it provides us

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
first   previous   Page 21 of 32   next   last



background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
20
using strangers in addition to or instead of friends in a replication of this study to explore
further what may be driving this increase in emotion.
One thing clearly supported by this research is the importance of distinguishing
between different types of smiles. There is a strong positive correlation between the self-
report of the emotion of happiness and enjoyment smiles that does not appear in
nonenjoyment smiles. It was only by making this distinction that our results were able to
disconfirm Fridlund’s (1991) finding that there is no relationship between smiling and
emotion, and that smiles are solely communicative, voluntary behaviors that are
culturally defined.
Conclusion
Are smiles expressions of a universal emotional state, or culturally relative
communication gestures? Our study found that question to be a false dichotomy. Yes,
some smiles are expressions of an emotional state of happiness. But also, yes, some
smiles are relative communication gestures. The important questions for research are
whether we can tell these smiles apart, and why should we bother?
It seems clear based on this work, which followed on previous work (see review
by Frank, 2003, and Frank & Ekman, 1993), that we can tell these different types of
smiles apart. The enjoyment smile not only visually appears different, but can be reliably
measured by trained coders. We should bother to make this distinction between types of
smiles should be made because research has shown that the presence or absence of
enjoyments smiles in person’s communicative repertoire reliably predicts a variety of
outcomes, ranging from psychotherapeutic health to successful interpersonal
relationships (see Ekman & Rosenberg, 1997, for a review). In other words, it provides us


Convention
Submission, Review, and Scheduling! All Academic Convention can help with all of your abstract management needs and many more. Contact us today for a quote!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 21 of 32   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.