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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 25 Oxford University Press. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164, 86-88. Fox, N.A., & Davidson, R.J. (1988). Patterns of brain electrical activity during facial signs of emotion in 10-month old infants. Developmental Psychology, 24, 230- 236. Frank, M. G. (2003). Getting to Know your Patient: How Facial Expression can Help Reveal True Emotion. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), The Human face: Measurement and meaning. NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Frank, M. G., & Ekman, P. (1993). Not all smiles are created equal: The differences between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles. Humor: The International Journal of Research in Humor, 6, 9-26. Frank, M.G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 83- 93. Frank, M.G. & Stennett, J. (2001). The forced choice paradigm and the perception of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 75-85. Fridlund, A. J. (1991). Sociality of solitary smiling: Potentiation by an implicit audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 229-240. Fridlund, A. J., Sabini, J. P., Hedlund, L. E., & Schaut, J. A. (1990). Audience effects on solitary faces during imagery: Displaying to the people in your head. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 14, 113-137.

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
25
Oxford University Press.
Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial
displays of emotions. Science, 164, 86-88.
Fox, N.A., & Davidson, R.J. (1988). Patterns of brain electrical activity during facial
signs of emotion in 10-month old infants. Developmental Psychology, 24, 230-
236.
Frank, M. G. (2003). Getting to Know your Patient: How Facial Expression can Help
Reveal True Emotion. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), The Human face: Measurement and
meaning. NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Frank, M. G., & Ekman, P. (1993). Not all smiles are created equal: The differences
between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles. Humor: The International Journal
of Research in Humor, 6, 9-26.
Frank, M.G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability
of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 83-
93.
Frank, M.G. & Stennett, J. (2001). The forced choice paradigm and the perception of
facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80,
75-85.
Fridlund, A. J. (1991). Sociality of solitary smiling: Potentiation by an implicit audience.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 229-240.
Fridlund, A. J., Sabini, J. P., Hedlund, L. E., & Schaut, J. A. (1990). Audience effects on
solitary faces during imagery: Displaying to the people in your head. Journal of
Nonverbal Behavior, 14, 113-137.


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