All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 6 Additional evidence for the universality and innateness of emotional expression comes from observations of children who were born visually and auditory impaired, and who, thus, could not have learned how to make certain facial expressions for certain emotions (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1973). These children were observed to smile, cry, and make similar facial expressions to their sighted and hearing counterparts. In addition to the ability of others to accurately judge facial expressions of emotion, researchers have consistently found a relationship between self-report of various emotions and the expressions of these emotions (e.g., Ekman et al, 1990; Ekman, Levenson, & Friesen, 1983; Levenson, Carstensen, Friesen, & Ekman, 1991; Levenson, Ekman, & Friesen, 1990; Levenson, Ekman, Heider, & Friesen, 1992). This relationship occurs despite researchers using different emotion-eliciting techniques, such as posing facial expressions, reliving emotional events in one’s life, or watching films designed to induce emotion. Furthermore, this relationship occurs despite researchers using different means of measuring emotion, from self-report (e.g., Ekman, Friesen, & Ancoli, 1980)) to Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) measurement (Ekman et al, 1983) to Central Nervous System (CNS) measurement (Davidson, Ekman, Saron, Senulius, & Friesen, 1990). Support for a Neurocultural Theory of Emotion. The universal-biological and the cultural-relativist approaches provide compelling evidence for their positions. However, Ekman’s (1977) neurocultural theory of facial emotional expression espouses both the universal-biological and the cultural- relativist arguments. This theory proposes that some facial displays are voluntarily produced to serve communicative ends whereas other facial displays are involuntary expressions of felt emotion (Buck, 1984; Ekman, 1977, 1984; Ekman & Friesen, 1969,

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
first   previous   Page 7 of 32   next   last



background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
6
Additional evidence for the universality and innateness of emotional expression
comes from observations of children who were born visually and auditory impaired, and
who, thus, could not have learned how to make certain facial expressions for certain
emotions (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1973). These children were observed to smile, cry, and make
similar facial expressions to their sighted and hearing counterparts.
In addition to the ability of others to accurately judge facial expressions of
emotion, researchers have consistently found a relationship between self-report of various
emotions and the expressions of these emotions (e.g., Ekman et al, 1990; Ekman,
Levenson, & Friesen, 1983; Levenson, Carstensen, Friesen, & Ekman, 1991; Levenson,
Ekman, & Friesen, 1990; Levenson, Ekman, Heider, & Friesen, 1992). This relationship
occurs despite researchers using different emotion-eliciting techniques, such as posing
facial expressions, reliving emotional events in one’s life, or watching films designed to
induce emotion. Furthermore, this relationship occurs despite researchers using different
means of measuring emotion, from self-report (e.g., Ekman, Friesen, & Ancoli, 1980)) to
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) measurement (Ekman et al, 1983) to Central Nervous
System (CNS) measurement (Davidson, Ekman, Saron, Senulius, & Friesen, 1990).
Support for a Neurocultural Theory of Emotion.
The universal-biological and the cultural-relativist approaches provide
compelling evidence for their positions. However, Ekman’s (1977) neurocultural theory
of facial emotional expression espouses both the universal-biological and the cultural-
relativist arguments. This theory proposes that some facial displays are voluntarily
produced to serve communicative ends whereas other facial displays are involuntary
expressions of felt emotion (Buck, 1984; Ekman, 1977, 1984; Ekman & Friesen, 1969,


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 7 of 32   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.