All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 8 marker that would distinguish between voluntarily generated communicative gestures and experienced emotional states with clear, testable predictions. Distinguishing between smiles Research on the human smile has shown that there are markers that distinguish smiles that are shown for social or other reasons from smiles that are shown as a result of a physiologically felt positive emotional state. All smiles involve action of the zygomatic major muscle, which reaches from the cheekbones down and across the face, attaching to the corners of the lips (See Figure 1 ∗ ). When contracted, the zygomatic major pulls the lips’ corners up at an angle toward the cheekbones (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). The feature that distinguishes a smile that is produced as a result of a positive emotion (an “enjoyment” smile) from other smiles (“nonenjoyment” smiles) is that the enjoyment smile involves the additional action of the orbicularis oculi (See Figure 1). This muscle surrounds the eye, and, when contracted, gathers skin inwards around the eye, bags the skin below the eye, and produces crows-feet wrinkles (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). This distinction between emotionally elicited enjoyment smiles and voluntarily produced nonenjoyment smiles was originally noted in 1862 by the French anatomist Duchenne de Boulogne (1862/1990), who observed that the orbicularis oculi muscle was recruited in smiles that occur with spontaneously experienced enjoyment, but not in those that were voluntarily produced. However, despite the attention Darwin (1872/ 1998) gave to Duchenne’s distinction, most researchers ignored the finding until quite recently, instead treating smiles as a single expression (Ekman & Friesen, 1982). Moreover, other research suggests that although Duchenne’s marker was the most salient marker, there are ∗ Figure 1 is not included in this submission because we were concerned the incorporation of such a large file into this paper may make electronic submission difficult, as we had trouble loading it onto our computer. Figure 1 is available upon request.

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
first   previous   Page 9 of 32   next   last



background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
8
marker that would distinguish between voluntarily generated communicative gestures and
experienced emotional states with clear, testable predictions.
Distinguishing between smiles
Research on the human smile has shown that there are markers that distinguish
smiles that are shown for social or other reasons from smiles that are shown as a result of
a physiologically felt positive emotional state. All smiles involve action of the zygomatic
major muscle, which reaches from the cheekbones down and across the face, attaching to
the corners of the lips (See Figure 1
). When contracted, the zygomatic major pulls the
lips’ corners up at an angle toward the cheekbones (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). The feature
that distinguishes a smile that is produced as a result of a positive emotion (an
“enjoyment” smile) from other smiles (“nonenjoyment” smiles) is that the enjoyment
smile involves the additional action of the orbicularis oculi (See Figure 1). This muscle
surrounds the eye, and, when contracted, gathers skin inwards around the eye, bags the
skin below the eye, and produces crows-feet wrinkles (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). This
distinction between emotionally elicited enjoyment smiles and voluntarily produced
nonenjoyment smiles was originally noted in 1862 by the French anatomist Duchenne de
Boulogne (1862/1990), who observed that the orbicularis oculi muscle was recruited in
smiles that occur with spontaneously experienced enjoyment, but not in those that were
voluntarily produced. However, despite the attention Darwin (1872/ 1998) gave to
Duchenne’s distinction, most researchers ignored the finding until quite recently, instead
treating smiles as a single expression (Ekman & Friesen, 1982). Moreover, other
research suggests that although Duchenne’s marker was the most salient marker, there are
Figure 1 is not included in this submission because we were concerned the incorporation of such a large
file into this paper may make electronic submission difficult, as we had trouble loading it onto our
computer. Figure 1 is available upon request.


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 9 of 32   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.