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Engineering the Public Interest, 1922-1925: Technological Rationality and Institutionalization of American Broadcasting
Unformatted Document Text:  31 Tower in Babel, 122. On clear channel structure (1930-1960), James C. Foust, Big Voices of the Air: The Battle over Clear Channel Radio (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 2000), 19-21. 13 The thesis of Benjamin’s article, “Working It Out Together.” 14 On RCA quote, “Memorandum of the Radio Corporations of America with Reference to the Tentative Report of the Department of Commerce Radio telephony Conference, Department of Commerce, HHPL, Commerce Papers, National-First, b. 496, April 17, 1922; Jansky Papers, SHSW, f.7 b.7. It was to oppose the discrimination of licensing and wanted Commerce Department’s control over radio licensing and frequency assignment over amateur, experimental and governmental stations, as well as commercial stations. 15 Jansky Papers, Ibid. 16 On a seven lecture series, Batsel paper, SHSW, f.1: Davis H. P. December 1922, Speaks from KDKA on the Problems of Radio broadcasting, A-7171; Easton, W. H. “What the Radio Audience Tells Us,” Dec. 16, 1922; Kintner S., “Factors That Have Made Radio Broadcasting Possible, Dec. 20, 1922; Chubb, L. “Broadcasting Conditions,” Dec. 30, 1922; Horn, C. W., “Radio Broadcasting Conditions,” Jan. 3, 1923; Bastel, M. C., “Selectivity,” Jan. 10, 1923; Thomas, P., The Speech Microphone, The Brain of the Broadcasting Set,” Jan. 29, 1923; See also Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 225-26. 17 On the publicity efforts for Class B, “Statement by Secretary on Radio Situation, for “Radio Broadcast”,” Nov. 3, 1922 Bible #276. HHPL Commerce Papers, Radio Correspondence, b. 489. This statement was published in the title of “Urgent Need for Radio Regulation” under the name of Herbert Hoover; Radio Broadcast, Jan. 1923, 211. By publicizing the statement, Hoover meant to give pressure on the Navy to open up the wavelengths reserved for governmental purpose to promote new policy of Class B licensing, while testing out the public opinion on his power and Class B solutions to the problem of interference. On pre-negotiation, Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 225. 18 Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,”226-27. 19 Ibid, 228. 20 Statement of the Secretary of Commerce at the Opening of the Radio Conference on March 20, 1923, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio, National-Second, 1923, b. 496; Press Release, Department of Commerce, March 6, 1923, b. 496. 21 Radio Service Bulletin, April 2,1923, 9. For example, in the statement of “all wave lengths from 222 to 545 meters for public broadcasting”; also Press Release on April 2, 1923, Department of Commerce, HHPL, Commerce Papers, National-Second, b. 496. 22 Jansky papers, SHSW, f.3 b.7, March 20, 1923. 23 Barnouw, A Tower in Babel, 116. In March 1924, the report of the FTC (Report of the Federal Trade Commission on the Radio Industry, 1924) was being anticipated. Radio set makers argued that RCA and its allies (the radio trust) converted their tube monopoly into a monopoly in radio apparatus manufacture and sale. The radio trust became a congressional issue. In March 1923, from the concern that concentrated corporate would control the flow of information, Congress requested the FTC to investigate the radio industry to judge whether patents of radio equipment was monopolizing “reception and transmission” and violated anti-trust laws. Many Congressmen knew that the manufacturers and sellers of radio apparatus controlled the air. 24 Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 228. 25 Opening Address by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio, Conferences, National Third (Oct. 6-10, 1924), b. 496. Hoover stated, “During the past 10 days I have received thousands of letters from men, women, and children all over the country protesting against what they honestly believe would result in depriving them of the chance to listen to the local stations or to use their will in selecting the ones they want to hear. They fear a monopoly of the air”; Louis M. Benjamin, Freedom of the Air and the Public Interest: First Amendment Rights in Broadcasting to 1935 (Carbondale, IL: South Illinois University Press, 2001),1-2. The FTC report was released to Congress in March 1924 (see n26). 26 Opening Address of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, Ibid, 7. Hoover said, “As to whether this shows a real trend toward an abandonment of the smaller stations, it is too early to determine.” 27 “Learn to Separate Stations,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1477. Then, paradoxically, the increase of technologically qualified Class B became a problem, rather than a progress. 28 On classification, Carl H. Butman, “Third Conference Makes for Better Radio Service,” Radio News, Dec. 1924, 901. On the benefits of farmers, Recommendations of Subcommittee 1, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio, Conferences, National Third (Oct. 6-10, 1924), b. 496, 6, 14. For the public interest, Subcommittee No. 2: Allocation of Frequencies or Wavelengths to Broadcasting Stations, Ibid, 16-17. 29 On the quarrels, “Learn to Separate Stations,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1477. On the problems of the plan,

Authors: Baek, Misook.
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31
Tower in Babel, 122. On clear channel structure (1930-1960), James C. Foust, Big Voices of the Air: The Battle over
Clear Channel Radio
(Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 2000), 19-21.
13
The thesis of Benjamin’s article, “Working It Out Together.”
14
On RCA quote, “Memorandum of the Radio Corporations of America with Reference to the Tentative Report of
the Department of Commerce Radio telephony Conference, Department of Commerce, HHPL, Commerce Papers,
National-First, b. 496, April 17, 1922; Jansky Papers, SHSW, f.7 b.7. It was to oppose the discrimination of
licensing and wanted Commerce Department’s control over radio licensing and frequency assignment over amateur,
experimental and governmental stations, as well as commercial stations.
15
Jansky Papers, Ibid.
16
On a seven lecture series, Batsel paper, SHSW, f.1: Davis H. P. December 1922, Speaks from KDKA on the
Problems of Radio broadcasting, A-7171; Easton, W. H. “What the Radio Audience Tells Us,” Dec. 16, 1922;
Kintner S., “Factors That Have Made Radio Broadcasting Possible, Dec. 20, 1922; Chubb, L. “Broadcasting
Conditions,” Dec. 30, 1922; Horn, C. W., “Radio Broadcasting Conditions,” Jan. 3, 1923; Bastel, M. C.,
“Selectivity,” Jan. 10, 1923; Thomas, P., The Speech Microphone, The Brain of the Broadcasting Set,” Jan. 29,
1923; See also Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 225-26.
17
On the publicity efforts for Class B, “Statement by Secretary on Radio Situation, for “Radio Broadcast”,” Nov. 3,
1922 Bible #276. HHPL Commerce Papers, Radio Correspondence, b. 489. This statement was published in the title
of “Urgent Need for Radio Regulation” under the name of Herbert Hoover; Radio Broadcast, Jan. 1923, 211.
By publicizing the statement, Hoover meant to give pressure on the Navy to open up the wavelengths reserved for
governmental purpose to promote new policy of Class B licensing, while testing out the public opinion on his power
and Class B solutions to the problem of interference. On pre-negotiation, Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 225.
18
Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,”226-27.
19
Ibid, 228.
20
Statement of the Secretary of Commerce at the Opening of the Radio Conference on March 20, 1923, HHPL,
Commerce Papers, Radio, National-Second, 1923, b. 496; Press Release, Department of Commerce, March 6, 1923,
b. 496.
21
Radio Service Bulletin, April 2,1923, 9. For example, in the statement of “all wave lengths from 222 to 545 meters
for public broadcasting”; also Press Release on April 2, 1923, Department of Commerce, HHPL, Commerce Papers,
National-Second, b. 496.
22
Jansky papers, SHSW, f.3 b.7, March 20, 1923.
23
Barnouw, A Tower in Babel, 116. In March 1924, the report of the FTC (Report of the Federal Trade Commission
on the Radio Industry, 1924) was being anticipated. Radio set makers argued that RCA and its allies (the radio trust)
converted their tube monopoly into a monopoly in radio apparatus manufacture and sale. The radio trust became a
congressional issue. In March 1923, from the concern that concentrated corporate would control the flow of
information, Congress requested the FTC to investigate the radio industry to judge whether patents of radio
equipment was monopolizing “reception and transmission” and violated anti-trust laws. Many Congressmen knew
that the manufacturers and sellers of radio apparatus controlled the air.
24
Benjamin, “Working It Out Together,” 228.
25
Opening Address by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio, Conferences, National Third (Oct. 6-10,
1924), b. 496. Hoover stated, “During the past 10 days I have received thousands of letters from men, women, and
children all over the country protesting against what they honestly believe would result in depriving them of the
chance to listen to the local stations or to use their will in selecting the ones they want to hear. They fear a monopoly
of the air”; Louis M. Benjamin, Freedom of the Air and the Public Interest: First Amendment Rights in Broadcasting
to 1935
(Carbondale, IL: South Illinois University Press, 2001),1-2. The FTC report was released to Congress in
March 1924 (see n26).
26
Opening Address of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, Ibid, 7. Hoover said, “As to whether this shows a
real trend toward an abandonment of the smaller stations, it is too early to determine.”
27
“Learn to Separate Stations,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1477. Then, paradoxically, the increase of technologically
qualified Class B became a problem, rather than a progress.
28
On classification, Carl H. Butman, “Third Conference Makes for Better Radio Service,” Radio News, Dec. 1924,
901. On the benefits of farmers, Recommendations of Subcommittee 1, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio,
Conferences, National Third (Oct. 6-10, 1924), b. 496, 6, 14. For the public interest, Subcommittee No. 2:
Allocation of Frequencies or Wavelengths to Broadcasting Stations, Ibid, 16-17.
29
On the quarrels, “Learn to Separate Stations,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1477. On the problems of the plan,


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