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Engineering the Public Interest, 1922-1925: Technological Rationality and Institutionalization of American Broadcasting
Unformatted Document Text:  34 Jan. 1925 as an effort to sound out public opinions of restriction on licensing; also see “Hoover Wants No New Radio Laws,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1383, +1464-65. 60 “He’s looking out for the Listeners, Hoover’s attention to what listeners get, for continuous broadcasting service rather than dividing times; How Many Stations Are ‘Need’?” New York Times, From Press clipping from Alfred N. Gold Smith to Judge S. B. Davis, Feb. 10, 1925. HHPL, b. 490. This news story came out after Hoover’s press statement of “Secretary Hoover reviews radio Situation,” Released for use Sunday, Feb. 8, 1925. HHPL, Then, Radio Broadcast suggested the idea that application of license had to file a petition signed by at least 100,000 people who lived in that area of the proposed station. “Broadcast Licenses Should Be Granted Only on Petition,” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, May 1925, 38-39. 61 R. S. McBride, “How the Government Is Regulating Radio Broadcasting,” Radio Broadcast, May 1925, 30-32. 62 On the question of dividing time, “How Many Broadcasters Do We Want?” Radio News, May, 1925, 2094. The situation in the Chicago district was the worst. Ten stations were sharing five wavelengths, and. several well-known companies and concerns were waiting to open Class B stations. For Cincinnati citation, “What people say about radio section in the March of radio, the box article citing an anonymous radio manufacturer, Cincinnati, Radio Broadcast, July 1925, 341. On the vested interest, Radio Broadcast, March 1925, 893. 63 The rationale was that full time operating 6 good stations in any community would provide as much service in quantity and far better service in quality than 18, each on one-third time. It also addressed that the capital investment to build a good station had risen to upward of $150,000, and annual operating costs as $100,000 and even more. 64 Herbert Hoover, Opening Address, Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of Radio, Conference called by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio Conference, National-Fourth, Nov. 9-11, 1925, 6. 65 Ibid, 7. 66 Ibid. 67 Paul B. Klugh, Executive Chairman of the NAB, “Who Will Protect the Radio Listener?” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, Sept. 1925, 598. On opposition to division of time, J. H. Morecroft, “Four Hundred and Twenty Eight Broadcast Licenses Refused,” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, May 1926, 24. 68 Jansky to Earle M. Terry, Department of Physics, the Univ. of Wisconsin, Oct. 16, 1925, Jansky Papers, SHSW, f.7 b.7. 69 Ibid; Letter to Jansky from Engineering Extension Department, Iowa State college, Ames, Iowa, Oct. 24, 1925, Jansky Papers, SHSW, f.7 b.7 Asking Jansky’s advice on the coming Radio Conference in Nov. 1925, “We have appointed a program director. He is a half time engineering extension and a half time agricultural extension man. We have $3000 available for the operation of this station and $2000 for the use of the program director. A number of people dissatisfied with our wave length of 270 meters on account of series interference with other stations nearby having the same schedule and broadcasting about the same kind of material as we do. We like to try out a class “B” wave length with our power of 750 watts. You could suggest how we could go about this matter of securing a different wavelength if such is possible. I wonder if the matter of a conference of educational institutions for broadcasting stations, such as you suggested last spring, has been given any more thought by you.” 70 Umberger, Kansa State College, speaking on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, the farmers, and agricultural colleges using radio, Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of Radio, Conference called by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio Conference, National-Fourth, Nov. 9-11, 1925, 11; Reports of Committee No. 1: General Allocation of Frequency or Wavelength bands, Proceedings. . . 13. “Broadcasting Browning,” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, Feb, 1924, 272; Jennie Irene Mix, “The Listeners’ Point of View: There Is a Demand for Education by Radio,” Radio Broadcast, Feb. 1925, 689-90; Frederick P. Mayer, “The Revolution in the Art of Teaching,” Aug. 1925, 478. From a different vein from Jansky, in the mid-1926, the University of Association of Broadcasting Stations became formed under the leadership of C. S. Culver, Carton College, and J. C. Jenson of Nebraska Wesleyan University. Carl Dreher, “Educational Broadcasters Association Formed, As the Broadcaster Sees It,” Radio Broadcast, July 1926, 239. 71 Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of Radio, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio Conference, National-Fourth, Nov. 9-11, 1925, 29, 30-31: “The most effective step to eliminate such interference is to educate broadcast listeners in methods of locating the source of interference and its preventions or to take the necessary cooperative steps to have the interference eliminated. This education can be brought about through the formation of local broadcasting listeners’ clubs. As seen in the establishment of automobile clubs, the establishment and maintenance of systematically and conservatively conducted radio clubs in all communities should serve as a fundamental factor for solving this and other radio problems that have to do with

Authors: Baek, Misook.
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34
Jan. 1925 as an effort to sound out public opinions of restriction on licensing; also see “Hoover Wants No New
Radio Laws,” Radio News, Feb. 1925, 1383, +1464-65.
60
“He’s looking out for the Listeners, Hoover’s attention to what listeners get, for continuous broadcasting service
rather than dividing times; How Many Stations Are ‘Need’?” New York Times, From Press clipping from Alfred N.
Gold Smith to Judge S. B. Davis, Feb. 10, 1925. HHPL, b. 490. This news story came out after Hoover’s press
statement of “Secretary Hoover reviews radio Situation,” Released for use Sunday, Feb. 8, 1925. HHPL,
Then, Radio Broadcast suggested the idea that application of license had to file a petition signed by at least 100,000
people who lived in that area of the proposed station. “Broadcast Licenses Should Be Granted Only on Petition,”
The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, May 1925, 38-39.
61
R. S. McBride, “How the Government Is Regulating Radio Broadcasting,” Radio Broadcast, May 1925, 30-32.
62
On the question of dividing time, “How Many Broadcasters Do We Want?” Radio News, May, 1925, 2094. The
situation in the Chicago district was the worst. Ten stations were sharing five wavelengths, and. several well-known
companies and concerns were waiting to open Class B stations. For Cincinnati citation, “What people say about
radio section in the March of radio, the box article citing an anonymous radio manufacturer, Cincinnati, Radio
Broadcast
, July 1925, 341. On the vested interest, Radio Broadcast, March 1925, 893.
63
The rationale was that full time operating 6 good stations in any community would provide as much service in
quantity and far better service in quality than 18, each on one-third time. It also addressed that the capital investment
to build a good station had risen to upward of $150,000, and annual operating costs as $100,000 and even more.
64
Herbert Hoover, Opening Address, Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations
for Regulation of Radio, Conference called by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio Conference,
National-Fourth, Nov. 9-11, 1925, 6.
65
Ibid, 7.
66
Ibid.
67
Paul B. Klugh, Executive Chairman of the NAB, “Who Will Protect the Radio Listener?” The March of Radio,
Radio Broadcast, Sept. 1925, 598. On opposition to division of time, J. H. Morecroft, “Four Hundred and Twenty
Eight Broadcast Licenses Refused,” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, May 1926, 24.
68
Jansky to Earle M. Terry, Department of Physics, the Univ. of Wisconsin, Oct. 16, 1925, Jansky Papers, SHSW,
f.7 b.7.
69
Ibid; Letter to Jansky from Engineering Extension Department, Iowa State college, Ames, Iowa, Oct. 24, 1925,
Jansky Papers, SHSW, f.7 b.7 Asking Jansky’s advice on the coming Radio Conference in Nov. 1925, “We have
appointed a program director. He is a half time engineering extension and a half time agricultural extension man. We
have $3000 available for the operation of this station and $2000 for the use of the program director. A number of
people dissatisfied with our wave length of 270 meters on account of series interference with other stations nearby
having the same schedule and broadcasting about the same kind of material as we do. We like to try out a class “B”
wave length with our power of 750 watts. You could suggest how we could go about this matter of securing a
different wavelength if such is possible. I wonder if the matter of a conference of educational institutions for
broadcasting stations, such as you suggested last spring, has been given any more thought by you.”
70
Umberger, Kansa State College, speaking on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, the farmers, and agricultural
colleges using radio, Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of
Radio
, Conference called by Herbert Hoover, HHPL, Commerce Papers, Radio Conference, National-Fourth, Nov.
9-11, 1925, 11; Reports of Committee No. 1: General Allocation of Frequency or Wavelength bands, Proceedings. . .
13. “Broadcasting Browning,” The March of Radio, Radio Broadcast, Feb, 1924, 272; Jennie Irene Mix, “The
Listeners’ Point of View: There Is a Demand for Education by Radio,” Radio Broadcast, Feb. 1925, 689-90;
Frederick P. Mayer, “The Revolution in the Art of Teaching,” Aug. 1925, 478. From a different vein from Jansky, in
the mid-1926, the University of Association of Broadcasting Stations became formed under the leadership of C. S.
Culver, Carton College, and J. C. Jenson of Nebraska Wesleyan University. Carl Dreher, “Educational Broadcasters
Association Formed, As the Broadcaster Sees It,” Radio Broadcast, July 1926, 239.
71
Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of Radio, HHPL,
Commerce Papers, Radio Conference, National-Fourth, Nov. 9-11, 1925, 29, 30-31: “The most effective step to
eliminate such interference is to educate broadcast listeners in methods of locating the source of interference and its
preventions or to take the necessary cooperative steps to have the interference eliminated. This education can be
brought about through the formation of local broadcasting listeners’ clubs. As seen in the establishment of
automobile clubs, the establishment and maintenance of systematically and conservatively conducted radio clubs in
all communities should serve as a fundamental factor for solving this and other radio problems that have to do with


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