All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Engineering the Public Interest, 1922-1925: Technological Rationality and Institutionalization of American Broadcasting
Unformatted Document Text:  5 Class B licenses. These included WGY (GE, Schenectady, NY), WEAF (Western Electric, NY), KYW (Westinghouse, Chicago), WBAY (AT&T Newark, NY), and WWJ (Detroit News, Detroit). 7 The creation of Class B licensing was rationalized as regulation that enabled radio fans to receive “high-class entertainment” of the “best stations” without interference from mushrooming stations. This move was liked by listeners and by most large radio corporations who argued for the idea of a small group of powerful stations. It created a two-tire system of a few well-financed high-powered stations at 400 meters and 500 small stations crammed in “an underworld of 360, a place of howls and squeals and eternal misery.” 8 Nevertheless, even after the creation of Class B stations, the problem of interference was not reduced at all. The broadcast listeners complained of serious interference between Class B stations, and suggested that those stations should be put on a different wavelength, far enough apart not to cause a heterodyne whistle. To deal with the amount of interference mainly in Class B, Hoover convened the Second Radio Conference in Washington from March 20 to 24, 1923. The number of broadcast stations had grown from 60 in February 1922 to 581 by March 1923. Among them, there were 28 Class B stations. Radio receivers had increased from an estimated 600,000 to somewhere between 1.5 million to 2.5 million sets during the same period. In Congress, the bills proposed by Representative Wallace White and Senator Frank Kellog were stalled, and the court in the Intercity case (1923) ruled that the commerce secretary grant a license to anyone requesting one. Hoover wanted to further extend the airwaves for broadcasting and reallocate stations according to a new classification system. 9 Based on the expanded wavebands of 222 to 545 meters for commercial broadcasting, the Conference developed the Class B licensing scheme into three classes of stations—high, medium, and low power stations. On May 15, 1923, Hoover allocated Class B stations the

Authors: Baek, Misook.
first   previous   Page 5 of 35   next   last



background image
5
Class B licenses. These included WGY (GE, Schenectady, NY), WEAF (Western Electric, NY),
KYW (Westinghouse, Chicago), WBAY (AT&T Newark, NY), and WWJ (Detroit News,
Detroit).
7
The creation of Class B licensing was rationalized as regulation that enabled radio fans
to receive “high-class entertainment” of the “best stations” without interference from
mushrooming stations. This move was liked by listeners and by most large radio corporations
who argued for the idea of a small group of powerful stations. It created a two-tire system of a
few well-financed high-powered stations at 400 meters and 500 small stations crammed in “an
underworld of 360, a place of howls and squeals and eternal misery.”
8
Nevertheless, even after the creation of Class B stations, the problem of interference
was not reduced at all. The broadcast listeners complained of serious interference between Class
B stations, and suggested that those stations should be put on a different wavelength, far enough
apart not to cause a heterodyne whistle. To deal with the amount of interference mainly in Class
B, Hoover convened the Second Radio Conference in Washington from March 20 to 24, 1923.
The number of broadcast stations had grown from 60 in February 1922 to 581 by March 1923.
Among them, there were 28 Class B stations. Radio receivers had increased from an estimated
600,000 to somewhere between 1.5 million to 2.5 million sets during the same period. In
Congress, the bills proposed by Representative Wallace White and Senator Frank Kellog were
stalled, and the court in the Intercity case (1923) ruled that the commerce secretary grant a
license to anyone requesting one. Hoover wanted to further extend the airwaves for broadcasting
and reallocate stations according to a new classification system.
9
Based on the expanded wavebands of 222 to 545 meters for commercial broadcasting,
the Conference developed the Class B licensing scheme into three classes of stations—high,
medium, and low power stations. On May 15, 1923, Hoover allocated Class B stations the


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 5 of 35   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.