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Effects of Parental Attachment Style and Parental Expectations on Family Conflict in Families with Adolescents
Unformatted Document Text:  Attachment and Family Influence on Adolescence 15 framework for intimate relationships in adulthood. Some research, however, has considered the parental aspect of attachment. Parker et al.’s (1979) work examined the parental behaviors and attitudes that contribute to the parent-child bond. In developing the parental bonding instrument, they concluded that a two-dimension model could be useful. This model includes two bipolar factors - care and overprotection (control) – as significant to the parent-child bond. Their results suggest that a parent’s ability to nurture and to allow separation and independence are closely linked to the attachment between parent and child. Puberty and Pubertal Timing Research on puberty during adolescence has not clearly identified the role of physiological change in affecting family interactions. From a popular stereotypical perspective, puberty and the subsequent hormonal changes are the major cause of much of the relational difficulty of adolescence. However, research does not support this belief. Adolescence involves adjustment and developmental growth. Changes in family roles and dynamics are long-term during this stage. The impact of puberty, on the other hand, is more episodic, can be non-linear, and involves temporary shifts to adapt to pubertal changes. Following these adjustments in family roles, there is a return to previous levels of relationship (Molina & Chassin, 1996). Pubertal timing is only one factor in the transitions and turning points that affect adolescence (Graber &Brooks-Gunn, 1996). Behaviors change during transition and turning points; some of these are due to pubertal changes. Steinberg and Morris (2001) in their review of adolescent research and literature identify that the role of hormonally driven moodiness is believed to be greater than research supports. They go on to indicate that research findings actually support the idea that advanced pubertal status actually is associated with positive, not negative feelings. This is not to suggest, however, that puberty has no effect on the family interactions but to recognize

Authors: Allen, Donna. and Rangarajan, Sripriya.
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Attachment and Family Influence on Adolescence 15
framework for intimate relationships in adulthood. Some research, however, has considered the
parental aspect of attachment. Parker et al.’s (1979) work examined the parental behaviors and
attitudes that contribute to the parent-child bond. In developing the parental bonding instrument,
they concluded that a two-dimension model could be useful. This model includes two bipolar
factors - care and overprotection (control) – as significant to the parent-child bond. Their results
suggest that a parent’s ability to nurture and to allow separation and independence are closely
linked to the attachment between parent and child.
Puberty and Pubertal Timing
Research on puberty during adolescence has not clearly identified the role of
physiological change in affecting family interactions. From a popular stereotypical perspective,
puberty and the subsequent hormonal changes are the major cause of much of the relational
difficulty of adolescence. However, research does not support this belief. Adolescence involves
adjustment and developmental growth. Changes in family roles and dynamics are long-term
during this stage. The impact of puberty, on the other hand, is more episodic, can be non-linear,
and involves temporary shifts to adapt to pubertal changes. Following these adjustments in
family roles, there is a return to previous levels of relationship (Molina & Chassin, 1996).
Pubertal timing is only one factor in the transitions and turning points that affect adolescence
(Graber &Brooks-Gunn, 1996). Behaviors change during transition and turning points; some of
these are due to pubertal changes. Steinberg and Morris (2001) in their review of adolescent
research and literature identify that the role of hormonally driven moodiness is believed to be
greater than research supports. They go on to indicate that research findings actually support the
idea that advanced pubertal status actually is associated with positive, not negative feelings. This
is not to suggest, however, that puberty has no effect on the family interactions but to recognize


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