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Violent Media Content: A Cross-Media, Longitundinal Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  12 RQ3: Will news media attention to the issue of media violence be a significant predictor of the amount of violence in entertainment media content? RQ4: Will governmental/political attention to the issue of television violence be a significant predictor of amount of violence in media content? Method Research Design The study is a quantitative content analysis of media content over time. The coders were several senior or recently graduated communication major students who had either been in the author’s advanced undergraduate course on the topic of television violence or who had previous experience conducting content analyses. The students were trained with the coding instrument and then assigned content to code. One-third of all of the content was coded twice, once by one student and then again by a different student, to ensure maximum reliability. Coders were paid using funds from a Faculty Research Grant obtained by the author. The external factors that would serve as independent variables were gathered from existing sources. Coding The same operational definition of violence employed by Clark and Blankenburg (1972) was used to measure physical violence here: physical acts or threat thereof by humans designed to inflict physical injury to persons or damage to property. This definition included such acts as punching, kicking, shooting with a gun, stabbing, hitting with something, grabbing forcefully, twisting arms, etc. Attempts that didn’t succeed, like shooting but missing or chasing with a weapon but not catching up, were also counted. In this study, coders separated injury to persons and damage to property and treated them as two different variables. The latter category included such acts as throwing

Authors: Scharrer, Erica.
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12
RQ3: Will news media attention to the issue of media violence be a significant
predictor of the amount of violence in entertainment media content?
RQ4: Will governmental/political attention to the issue of television violence be a
significant predictor of amount of violence in media content?
Method
Research Design
The study is a quantitative content analysis of media content over time. The
coders were several senior or recently graduated communication major students who had
either been in the author’s advanced undergraduate course on the topic of television
violence or who had previous experience conducting content analyses. The students were
trained with the coding instrument and then assigned content to code. One-third of all of
the content was coded twice, once by one student and then again by a different student, to
ensure maximum reliability. Coders were paid using funds from a Faculty Research
Grant obtained by the author. The external factors that would serve as independent
variables were gathered from existing sources.
Coding
The same operational definition of violence employed by Clark and Blankenburg
(1972) was used to measure physical violence here: physical acts or threat thereof by
humans designed to inflict physical injury to persons or damage to property. This
definition included such acts as punching, kicking, shooting with a gun, stabbing, hitting
with something, grabbing forcefully, twisting arms, etc. Attempts that didn’t succeed, like
shooting but missing or chasing with a weapon but not catching up, were also counted.
In this study, coders separated injury to persons and damage to property and
treated them as two different variables. The latter category included such acts as throwing


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