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Violent Media Content: A Cross-Media, Longitundinal Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  14 This study also followed the lead of the National Television Violence Study (1996, 1997, 1998) and coded for contextual features that have been associated with heightened risk of negative outcomes. For these variables, either the presence or absence of the feature was noted (e.g., Was the violence justified? Yes or no?) or the degree of the feature’s presence was noted (e.g., how graphic was the violence on a scale of 1 to 5?). Coders also had the option of indicating that the variable in question was not appropriate for the content being coded (e.g., rating news content for realism) or that there was insufficient information to judge the presence or absence of the variable. The following contextual feature variables were coded: severity, graphicness, rewards or punishments in violence, justification in violence, humor in violence, presence of pain or harm cues, presence of remorse or guilt, degree of like-ability of perpetrator, degree of like-ability of victim, realism, presence of weapons, and presence of an anti-violence theme. See Appendix A for detailed descriptions of how these variables were coded. Finally, in addition to coding for amount and types of violence, background characteristics of violent content were also coded. Examples include name of the specific television channel, newspaper, or newsmagazine; length and location of news articles; day, time slot, and genre of primetime television programs; and genre of movies. This information was coded from the materials themselves that are described in detail below (Lexis Nexis articles, TV Guide synopses) or, in the case of television programs, from Brook’s and Marsh’s (1999) The Complete Directory to Primetime, Network, and Cable TV Shows. Scott’s pi results for intercoder reliability suggest that coders concurred at an acceptable rate of agreement: (physical violence against people = .84, verbal violence

Authors: Scharrer, Erica.
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14
This study also followed the lead of the National Television Violence Study
(1996, 1997, 1998) and coded for contextual features that have been associated with
heightened risk of negative outcomes. For these variables, either the presence or absence
of the feature was noted (e.g., Was the violence justified? Yes or no?) or the degree of the
feature’s presence was noted (e.g., how graphic was the violence on a scale of 1 to 5?).
Coders also had the option of indicating that the variable in question was not appropriate
for the content being coded (e.g., rating news content for realism) or that there was
insufficient information to judge the presence or absence of the variable. The following
contextual feature variables were coded: severity, graphicness, rewards or punishments in
violence, justification in violence, humor in violence, presence of pain or harm cues,
presence of remorse or guilt, degree of like-ability of perpetrator, degree of like-ability of
victim, realism, presence of weapons, and presence of an anti-violence theme. See
Appendix A for detailed descriptions of how these variables were coded.
Finally, in addition to coding for amount and types of violence, background
characteristics of violent content were also coded. Examples include name of the specific
television channel, newspaper, or newsmagazine; length and location of news articles;
day, time slot, and genre of primetime television programs; and genre of movies. This
information was coded from the materials themselves that are described in detail below
(Lexis Nexis articles, TV Guide synopses) or, in the case of television programs, from
Brook’s and Marsh’s (1999) The Complete Directory to Primetime, Network, and Cable
TV Shows.
Scott’s pi results for intercoder reliability suggest that coders concurred at an
acceptable rate of agreement: (physical violence against people = .84, verbal violence


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