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Violent Media Content: A Cross-Media, Longitundinal Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  24 Although severity was indeterminate for 52.5%, 41.8% were rated the highest category for severity. Neither graphicness nor the presence of rewards or punishments were relevant features of the physical acts of violence found (96.4% and 97.5% “not applicable,” respectively). On the other hand, there was an indication that 22.2% of the acts met the definition of “justified violence,” while over three-quarters (77.5%) of the acts were indeterminate. Humor was absent in 92.4% of the physical acts against people. Issues of the degree of pain or harm experienced and degree of regret or remorse were determined by coders to be non-applicable for the vast majority of these acts (99.9% and 96.5%, respectively). On the other hand, 48.3% of the acts featured a perpetrator who was decidedly un-likeable and 46.4% featured a victim who was decidedly likeable. Finally, though most weapons were not directly discussed or shown (57.5%), 17.0% of the acts featured use of a gun and 16.5% featured a bomb as a weapon. As in the other types of media, there was also an average of .43 instances of verbal violence against people and an average of .88 physical acts of violence against objects per television newscast that contained violence. Table 1 shows a breakdown of the contextual factors pertaining to those instances of violence. Medium by Medium Comparisons The first hypothesis predicted that of the four types of media content examined, primetime television would contain the highest frequency of violence. Hypothesis two predicted that the print media types, newsmagazines and newspapers, would contain less violence than the broadcast media types, television news and primetime television. Both of the hypotheses were examined using a single test, a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons (see Table 2). The first hypothesis is

Authors: Scharrer, Erica.
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24
Although severity was indeterminate for 52.5%, 41.8% were rated the highest category
for severity. Neither graphicness nor the presence of rewards or punishments were
relevant features of the physical acts of violence found (96.4% and 97.5% “not
applicable,” respectively). On the other hand, there was an indication that 22.2% of the
acts met the definition of “justified violence,” while over three-quarters (77.5%) of the
acts were indeterminate. Humor was absent in 92.4% of the physical acts against people.
Issues of the degree of pain or harm experienced and degree of regret or remorse were
determined by coders to be non-applicable for the vast majority of these acts (99.9% and
96.5%, respectively). On the other hand, 48.3% of the acts featured a perpetrator who
was decidedly un-likeable and 46.4% featured a victim who was decidedly likeable.
Finally, though most weapons were not directly discussed or shown (57.5%), 17.0% of
the acts featured use of a gun and 16.5% featured a bomb as a weapon.
As in the other types of media, there was also an average of .43 instances of
verbal violence against people and an average of .88 physical acts of violence against
objects per television newscast that contained violence. Table 1 shows a breakdown of
the contextual factors pertaining to those instances of violence.
Medium by Medium Comparisons
The first hypothesis predicted that of the four types of media content examined,
primetime television would contain the highest frequency of violence. Hypothesis two
predicted that the print media types, newsmagazines and newspapers, would contain less
violence than the broadcast media types, television news and primetime television.
Both of the hypotheses were examined using a single test, a one-way analysis of
variance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons (see Table 2). The first hypothesis is


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