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Violent Media Content: A Cross-Media, Longitundinal Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  26 2.50) and television news (M = .86, SD = 2.15; F [2, 441] = 4.91, p < .01). However, no significant differences in amount of verbal violence against people occurred by medium. Changes over Time The longitudinal content data allow trends to be examined. In order to examine RQ1 regarding changes over time, we performed several analyses. First, a Pearson’s correlation was run, with year of the content examined and amount of violence in all of the media content coded in the study as variables. Results find that the overall percentage of media content that contains violence has decreased over time when assessing all four media types together. A significant, negative correlation between year of media content examined and percentage of such content that contained violence was found (r = -.36, p < .001, N = 785). Though the data seem to support an overall trend toward less violence in media content over time, they also suggest that media content that does, indeed, include violence has contained an increasingly larger numbers of acts of violence over time. As year of the media content increased, so did the numbers of physically violent acts against people in the violent media content examined (r = .16, p < .001, N = 789). Similarly, a significant and positive correlation was found between the year in which the media content was published or broadcast and the number of instances of verbal violence against people (r = .10, p < .01, N = 789). Second, the year in which the content appeared in the media was categorized into four time periods of approximately five years each, 1979-1983, 1984-1988, 1989-1993, and 1994-1999, in order to more closely examine longitudinal changes. A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine in which time periods changes in percent of total media content that contained violence, and numbers of acts of physical and verbal

Authors: Scharrer, Erica.
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2.50) and television news (M = .86, SD = 2.15; F [2, 441] = 4.91, p < .01). However, no
significant differences in amount of verbal violence against people occurred by medium.
Changes over Time
The longitudinal content data allow trends to be examined. In order to examine
RQ1 regarding changes over time, we performed several analyses. First, a Pearson’s
correlation was run, with year of the content examined and amount of violence in all of
the media content coded in the study as variables. Results find that the overall percentage
of media content that contains violence has decreased over time when assessing all four
media types together. A significant, negative correlation between year of media content
examined and percentage of such content that contained violence was found (r = -.36, p <
.001, N = 785). Though the data seem to support an overall trend toward less violence in
media content over time, they also suggest that media content that does, indeed, include
violence has contained an increasingly larger numbers of acts of violence over time. As
year of the media content increased, so did the numbers of physically violent acts against
people in the violent media content examined (r = .16, p < .001, N = 789). Similarly, a
significant and positive correlation was found between the year in which the media
content was published or broadcast and the number of instances of verbal violence
against people (r = .10, p < .01, N = 789).
Second, the year in which the content appeared in the media was categorized into
four time periods of approximately five years each, 1979-1983, 1984-1988, 1989-1993,
and 1994-1999, in order to more closely examine longitudinal changes. A one-way
analysis of variance was used to determine in which time periods changes in percent of
total media content that contained violence, and numbers of acts of physical and verbal


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