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Violent Media Content: A Cross-Media, Longitundinal Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  5 more violence than broadcast television. Cartoons were once again identified for their frequency of violent acts. Overall, in the third year of the study, 61% of all programs contained violence and only 3% had an anti-violence theme (National Television Violence Study, 1998). During primetime, specifically, the National Television Violence Study found an average of 67% of all programs contained violence. Furthermore, despite occurring in a period of heightened public and political scrutiny of violence in the entertainment industry, there were no significant changes in the amount of violence on television over the three years of the study. Violence in Other Media: Content Analyses Other types of media have not been examined as extensively or as often for violent content compared to television. Typically, analyses of violence in news media are limited to the treatment of specific issues, such as war, domestic violence, or crime, rather than of violence overall. Rarely has past research done what this study sets out to do, document the amount of violence that appears, overall and regardless of the subject, in news content. Yet, a limited number of previous studies do exist that analyzes the overall amount and treatment of violence in these media. Analyses of the overall amount of violence in the news media are rare. What is far more frequent is the study of the treatment of crime. In fact, crime has been determined to be the most frequently included topic in both local (Klite, Bardwell, & Salzman, 1995; Dorfman, Woodruff, Chavez, & Wallack, 1997) and national television news (Media Monitor, 1997). Dorfman and colleagues (Dorfman, et al., 1997), for example, examined 214 hours of local television news from 26 stations in California and found that more time was allotted to violent crime stories than any other topic 1 . They concluded that

Authors: Scharrer, Erica.
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more violence than broadcast television. Cartoons were once again identified for their
frequency of violent acts. Overall, in the third year of the study, 61% of all programs
contained violence and only 3% had an anti-violence theme (National Television
Violence Study, 1998). During primetime, specifically, the National Television Violence
Study found an average of 67% of all programs contained violence. Furthermore, despite
occurring in a period of heightened public and political scrutiny of violence in the
entertainment industry, there were no significant changes in the amount of violence on
television over the three years of the study.
Violence in Other Media: Content Analyses
Other types of media have not been examined as extensively or as often for
violent content compared to television. Typically, analyses of violence in news media are
limited to the treatment of specific issues, such as war, domestic violence, or crime,
rather than of violence overall. Rarely has past research done what this study sets out to
do, document the amount of violence that appears, overall and regardless of the subject,
in news content. Yet, a limited number of previous studies do exist that analyzes the
overall amount and treatment of violence in these media.
Analyses of the overall amount of violence in the news media are rare. What is far
more frequent is the study of the treatment of crime. In fact, crime has been determined to
be the most frequently included topic in both local (Klite, Bardwell, & Salzman, 1995;
Dorfman, Woodruff, Chavez, & Wallack, 1997) and national television news (Media
Monitor, 1997). Dorfman and colleagues (Dorfman, et al., 1997), for example, examined
214 hours of local television news from 26 stations in California and found that more
time was allotted to violent crime stories than any other topic
1
. They concluded that


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