All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Functionalism Revisited: A practice based Functionalism
Unformatted Document Text:  Functionalism Revisited 18 institution itself nor the individual’s pure free will, but the historicity of relations that comprise the overall picture of institution. Hence, in order to understand social and economic institution, it becomes important to examine how individuals act and react upon the others. He also points out that individual actions and reactions may result in regularized patterns. That is, while establishing and carrying out relations, individuals tend to build up generalized expectations of others’ behavior. It is this expectation that makes it possible for economic actors not to put a new effort in every transaction. This becomes an advantage that might aid some shortfalls of approaches of TCA and Agent Theory. That is, the argument of focusing only on the opportunistic behaviors and efforts of suppressing them can now be augmented with the aid of regularized features of social relations in economic behaviors. Granovetter points out that relations built between individuals may have some influences on individual actions. Such relations, at the same time, are subject to change, based upon individual actions toward each other. However, there is a mysterious link in his argument. That is, how do individuals build such regularized expectations? To begin with, how the individual is equipped with the barrels of expectations of others’ behaviors? Also, if relations – hence, economic actions – are socially constructed, how much influence do such relations have on individuals? That is, what is the power of the regularized expectations in social relations? These questions require further discussions on the characteristics of individuals and how individual actions influence and influenced by society. Two reasons seem to justify this digression from the issues of interorganizational relations to the issues of individual and society. First, there seems an order of economic actions at both individual and organizational level. Discussing theoretical ground at the individual level helps us understand how organizations conduct economic behavior. Second, if functionalism and structuralism, which argue that there are social orders in individuals’ (hence, organizations’) economic behaviors or actions are misleading, we need to clarify why consensual behaviors exist in social and economic world. These reasons invite us to speculate upon Giddens’ theory of Structuration. Theory of Structuration For Giddens, an individual is an active social agent exercising her knowledge about how to go on in day-to-day life situations. Two parts are synthesized: an individual (agent) and the life situations (structure). And they are the main bodies of Giddens’ discussion of structuration (agent/structure). The first one is Giddens’ assertion of a knowledgeable individual who is capable of actively engaging in social life in a skilful manner. This assertion alone resembles Garfinkel’s individual (see, Cohen, 2000). Garfinkel argues that social order is obtained and sustained in the coordinated everyday-life actions

Authors: Kim, Hyo.
first   previous   Page 18 of 42   next   last



background image
Functionalism Revisited 18
institution itself nor the individual’s pure free will, but the historicity of relations that comprise the
overall picture of institution. Hence, in order to understand social and economic institution, it becomes
important to examine how individuals act and react upon the others.
He also points out that individual actions and reactions may result in regularized patterns. That is,
while establishing and carrying out relations, individuals tend to build up generalized expectations of
others’ behavior. It is this expectation that makes it possible for economic actors not to put a new effort
in every transaction. This becomes an advantage that might aid some shortfalls of approaches of TCA
and Agent Theory. That is, the argument of focusing only on the opportunistic behaviors and efforts of
suppressing them can now be augmented with the aid of regularized features of social relations in
economic behaviors. Granovetter points out that relations built between individuals may have some
influences on individual actions. Such relations, at the same time, are subject to change, based upon
individual actions toward each other.
However, there is a mysterious link in his argument. That is, how do individuals build such
regularized expectations? To begin with, how the individual is equipped with the barrels of expectations
of others’ behaviors? Also, if relations – hence, economic actions – are socially constructed, how much
influence do such relations have on individuals? That is, what is the power of the regularized
expectations in social relations?
These questions require further discussions on the characteristics of individuals and how
individual actions influence and influenced by society. Two reasons seem to justify this digression from
the issues of interorganizational relations to the issues of individual and society. First, there seems an
order of economic actions at both individual and organizational level. Discussing theoretical ground at
the individual level helps us understand how organizations conduct economic behavior. Second, if
functionalism and structuralism, which argue that there are social orders in individuals’ (hence,
organizations’) economic behaviors or actions are misleading, we need to clarify why consensual
behaviors exist in social and economic world. These reasons invite us to speculate upon Giddens’ theory
of Structuration.
Theory of Structuration
For Giddens, an individual is an active social agent exercising her knowledge about how to go on
in day-to-day life situations. Two parts are synthesized: an individual (agent) and the life situations
(structure). And they are the main bodies of Giddens’ discussion of structuration (agent/structure). The
first one is Giddens’ assertion of a knowledgeable individual who is capable of actively engaging in
social life in a skilful manner. This assertion alone resembles Garfinkel’s individual (see, Cohen, 2000).
Garfinkel argues that social order is obtained and sustained in the coordinated everyday-life actions


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 18 of 42   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.