All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Functionalism Revisited: A practice based Functionalism
Unformatted Document Text:  Functionalism Revisited 24 communication (CMC) media reflect this (Walther, 1992; Walther, Anderson, & Park, 1994; Walther & Burgoon, 1992). They argue that social information exchange in CMC media requires a longer adoptive period than does Face-to-Face (FtF) communication. Most prior studies failed to capture the sociality of CMC media use because they were mainly short-term projects, which ended before the development of relationships fully occurred. What they imply is that routinized social practices in new media were only possible through their actual use rather than expectation of the outcome. 7 Therefore, two concerns should be addressed. First, since regularity or continuity is made by people, it should be noticed that such regularity or continuity is subject to be sustained, maintained, altered, and rebelled by local actions. Hence, there are no constant, ahistorical regularities in social science. Alterations and changes of social regularities vary in terms of time and patterns. As Giddens argues localized actions would be the compelling factors for the phases, patterns, and result of changes. Such subtle changes via localized action can be noticed via ethnomethodological works. However, general regularity should be visible in quantifiable manners. Further, such regularity should work well as a blurred guideline of human actions during a certain period. Second, it should be noted that even with this notion, some branches of functionalism are inapplicable. For example, evolutionism, which posits that organizational survival is determined by natural selection, would not fit in this argument since such regularity does not stem from what people do, but from what nature does. In other words, the world is the pure work of function imposed by the nature. Marx’s idea of capitalism, historical materialism, derived from Hegel’s idea of dialectical development of human history, implies that human history develops under certain rule-like axioms – i.e., conflict between those who own the mode of production and those who do not. Although such a viewpoint has valuable points, it rather expands its applicability in an ahistorical manner and more importantly ignores the human subject factor. As a result, it does not accurately depict what really happens in modern lives under the capitalism. Also, this would be the reason of why there are distinctive differences between European, American, and Asian in economic and organizational behavior as well as capitalism in general. If the above approaches are integrated with the ideas of dialectic, recursive influence between structures and human subject, hence we recognize the (gradual) changes of the regularities in social systems due to the involvement of human actions; the approaches would more accurately depict social phenomena. This leads us to make theories (functionalism/structuralism) more secular and action- grounded. 7 In their meta-analysis of CMC studies, Walther et al. (1994) incorporated “time” as a factor for varying CMC research outcomes. The attempt was rather ingenious, since measuring time (in a quantitative study) indeed warrants detecting the necessity of experience.

Authors: Kim, Hyo.
first   previous   Page 24 of 42   next   last



background image
Functionalism Revisited 24
communication (CMC) media reflect this (Walther, 1992; Walther, Anderson, & Park, 1994; Walther &
Burgoon, 1992). They argue that social information exchange in CMC media requires a longer adoptive
period than does Face-to-Face (FtF) communication. Most prior studies failed to capture the sociality of
CMC media use because they were mainly short-term projects, which ended before the development of
relationships fully occurred. What they imply is that routinized social practices in new media were only
possible through their actual use rather than expectation of the outcome.
7
Therefore, two concerns should be addressed. First, since regularity or continuity is made by
people, it should be noticed that such regularity or continuity is subject to be sustained, maintained,
altered, and rebelled by local actions. Hence, there are no constant, ahistorical regularities in social
science. Alterations and changes of social regularities vary in terms of time and patterns. As Giddens
argues localized actions would be the compelling factors for the phases, patterns, and result of changes.
Such subtle changes via localized action can be noticed via ethnomethodological works. However,
general regularity should be visible in quantifiable manners. Further, such regularity should work well as
a blurred guideline of human actions during a certain period. Second, it should be noted that even with
this notion, some branches of functionalism are inapplicable. For example, evolutionism, which posits
that organizational survival is determined by natural selection, would not fit in this argument since such
regularity does not stem from what people do, but from what nature does. In other words, the world is the
pure work of function imposed by the nature. Marx’s idea of capitalism, historical materialism, derived
from Hegel’s idea of dialectical development of human history, implies that human history develops
under certain rule-like axioms – i.e., conflict between those who own the mode of production and those
who do not. Although such a viewpoint has valuable points, it rather expands its applicability in an
ahistorical manner and more importantly ignores the human subject factor. As a result, it does not
accurately depict what really happens in modern lives under the capitalism. Also, this would be the
reason of why there are distinctive differences between European, American, and Asian in economic and
organizational behavior as well as capitalism in general.
If the above approaches are integrated with the ideas of dialectic, recursive influence between
structures and human subject, hence we recognize the (gradual) changes of the regularities in social
systems due to the involvement of human actions; the approaches would more accurately depict social
phenomena. This leads us to make theories (functionalism/structuralism) more secular and action-
grounded.
7
In their meta-analysis of CMC studies, Walther et al. (1994) incorporated “time” as a factor for varying
CMC research outcomes. The attempt was rather ingenious, since measuring time (in a quantitative
study) indeed warrants detecting the necessity of experience.


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 24 of 42   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.