All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Biomedical Literacy in the United States: Exploring the borderland between science and citizenship
Unformatted Document Text:  5 POLITICAL SPECIALIZATION AND ISSUE ATTENTIVENESS Biomedical literacy is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for effective participation in the formulation of public policy on biomedical issues. Political specialization is one of the important structural components of modern political systems. It is obvious that no citizen can achieve and sustain an adequate level of understanding of all of the issues involved in economic policy, foreign policy, agricultural policy, housing policy, transportation policy, education policy, tax policy, defense policy, environmental policy, science policy, health policy, and, now, homeland security. The Congress requires more than 200 committees and more than 20,000 professional staff to study and follow these issues; there is little reason to think that the ordinary citizen can hold a job, raise a family, have a social life, and maintain an adequate understanding of more than two or three major issue domains (Miller, 1983a). Most often, the issues that citizens follow reflect occupational concerns (farmers often follow agricultural policy, teachers often follow educational policy, and scientists tend to follow science policy issues), religious or ethnic concerns (Jews and Muslims follow Middle Eastern events, Hispanic-Americans tend to follow American policy toward Latin America, many ethnic groups follow immigration policy), or personal needs (older adults tend to follow Social Security issues, cancer patients often follow biomedical research issues, gun owners tend to follow gun regulation legislation). Fifty years ago, Almond (1950) recognized the development of issue specialization in regard to foreign policy matters and classified those citizens who (1) were very interested in foreign policy issues, (2) thought that they were reasonably well informed about foreign policy issues, and (3) were active consumers of current information on foreign affairs as the attentive public for foreign policy. Almond’s original work in foreign policy was extended by Rosenau (1961, 1963, 1974). Miller and others (Miller, 1983a, 1995; Miller, Pardo, and Niwa, 1997; Miller and Pardo, 2000; Miller and Kimmel, 2001) have applied the attentiveness model to science policy, biomedical policy, and other issues. Attentiveness to any issue requires some specialized knowledge, but attentiveness to scientific and biomedical issues appears to require a relatively higher or less common kind of specialized

Authors: Miller, Jon. and Kimmel, Linda.
first   previous   Page 6 of 24   next   last



background image
5
POLITICAL SPECIALIZATION AND ISSUE ATTENTIVENESS
Biomedical literacy is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for effective participation in the
formulation of public policy on biomedical issues. Political specialization is one of the important
structural components of modern political systems. It is obvious that no citizen can achieve and sustain an
adequate level of understanding of all of the issues involved in economic policy, foreign policy,
agricultural policy, housing policy, transportation policy, education policy, tax policy, defense policy,
environmental policy, science policy, health policy, and, now, homeland security. The Congress requires
more than 200 committees and more than 20,000 professional staff to study and follow these issues; there
is little reason to think that the ordinary citizen can hold a job, raise a family, have a social life, and
maintain an adequate understanding of more than two or three major issue domains (Miller, 1983a). Most
often, the issues that citizens follow reflect occupational concerns (farmers often follow agricultural
policy, teachers often follow educational policy, and scientists tend to follow science policy issues),
religious or ethnic concerns (Jews and Muslims follow Middle Eastern events, Hispanic-Americans tend
to follow American policy toward Latin America, many ethnic groups follow immigration policy), or
personal needs (older adults tend to follow Social Security issues, cancer patients often follow biomedical
research issues, gun owners tend to follow gun regulation legislation).
Fifty years ago, Almond (1950) recognized the development of issue specialization in regard to
foreign policy matters and classified those citizens who (1) were very interested in foreign policy issues,
(2) thought that they were reasonably well informed about foreign policy issues, and (3) were active
consumers of current information on foreign affairs as the attentive public for foreign policy. Almond’s
original work in foreign policy was extended by Rosenau (1961, 1963, 1974). Miller and others (Miller,
1983a, 1995; Miller, Pardo, and Niwa, 1997; Miller and Pardo, 2000; Miller and Kimmel, 2001) have
applied the attentiveness model to science policy, biomedical policy, and other issues.
Attentiveness to any issue requires some specialized knowledge, but attentiveness to scientific
and biomedical issues appears to require a relatively higher or less common kind of specialized


Convention
Submission, Review, and Scheduling! All Academic Convention can help with all of your abstract management needs and many more. Contact us today for a quote!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 6 of 24   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.