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An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 11 REACTIONS TO CHARACTERS EXPERIENCES According to Vorderer and Knobloch (1996), entertainment offers the individual the opportunity to go back and forth between escapement, by becoming involved in another world, and reflection of what the story means to him or her personally. Every drama depicts characters, protagonists and antagonists, who are affected by events that will ultimately impact their lives (Vorderer & Knobloch, 1996). The audience observes how the characters react to events and then morally evaluate the characters and form positive or negative dispositions toward the characters (Zillmann, 1996). The audience can like or dislike the protagonists and antagonists and may react to the experiences of the characters with joy or pain (Vorderer & Knobloch, 1996). In a successful E-E program, the audience will react in the way intended by the persuasive message and thus have anticipated reactions to the characters experiences. These anticipated reactions include identification with the protagonists, empathy toward the characters, and suspense. When the audience reacts in a fashion that is not productive or conducive to persuasion, then they have an unintended reaction. The potential reactions to the characters experiences that might lead to these unintended reactions include: avoidance and selective bias, and hindrances to empathy. Anticipated Reactions The anticipated reactions that an audience experiences when watching an E-E program that are considered conducive to behavioral change include identification, empathy, and suspense. All of these are related to having emotional reactions to observing the experiences of others and emotions consist of both cognitive and physiological components (Harris, 1989).

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
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EE theory,
11
REACTIONS TO CHARACTERS EXPERIENCES
According to Vorderer and Knobloch (1996), entertainment offers the individual the
opportunity to go back and forth between escapement, by becoming involved in another world,
and reflection of what the story means to him or her personally. Every drama depicts characters,
protagonists and antagonists, who are affected by events that will ultimately impact their lives
(Vorderer & Knobloch, 1996). The audience observes how the characters react to events and
then morally evaluate the characters and form positive or negative dispositions toward the
characters (Zillmann, 1996). The audience can like or dislike the protagonists and antagonists
and may react to the experiences of the characters with joy or pain (Vorderer & Knobloch,
1996). In a successful E-E program, the audience will react in the way intended by the
persuasive message and thus have anticipated reactions to the characters experiences. These
anticipated reactions include identification with the protagonists, empathy toward the characters,
and suspense. When the audience reacts in a fashion that is not productive or conducive to
persuasion, then they have an unintended reaction. The potential reactions to the characters
experiences that might lead to these unintended reactions include: avoidance and selective bias,
and hindrances to empathy.
Anticipated Reactions
The anticipated reactions that an audience experiences when watching an E-E program
that are considered conducive to behavioral change include identification, empathy, and
suspense. All of these are related to having emotional reactions to observing the experiences of
others and emotions consist of both cognitive and physiological components (Harris, 1989).


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