All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 14 Upward, downward, and similar comparisons all can be used in conjunction with any of the motives 1 , but are most often associated with particular motives (Wood, 1989). If the goal is self-improvement, upward comparisons give the person something to strive toward (Wood, 1989). If the goal is self-enhancement, s/he is more likely to choose downward comparisons to make his/herself look better in comparison to the other(s) (Wood, 1989). Similar comparisons are used most commonly when self-evaluation is the goal (Martin & Kennedy, 1994). This means that whom an audience member identifies with in the E-E program is going to be highly dependant on one’s goals. Characters who go through the desired social changes need to be at an adequate comparison level with regards to the audience for the type of comparison being made. More research needs to be done on E-E programs to determine what types of attitude and behavior change are best made through characters who are similar to the target audience versus characters who are slightly different from them. We would suggest that characters for which there is a downward comparison leads to one being satisfied that their life is not bad, and thereby will not motivate change. And a drastic upward comparison might lead one to believe that because they do not have the means of the character (e.g., enough money), then they will not be able to make a similar change in their own life. Empathy Empathy is a sort of emotional identification (Harris, 1989). It is any experience in which one responds to the presumed emotions of another based on his/her circumstances, bodily, facial, paralinguistic and/or linguistic expression of emotion, or any other action the individual takes in response to an emotional experience with an increase in excitation that is interpreted as feeling with or for that individual (Zillmann, 1996). Empathy involves both cognition, needed in 1 For example, when the motive is self-evaluation, one might choose to make upward comparisons in order to accurately evaluate their limitations and downward comparisons to evaluate their strengths.

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
first   previous   Page 14 of 29   next   last



background image
EE theory,
14
Upward, downward, and similar comparisons all can be used in conjunction with any of
the motives
1
, but are most often associated with particular motives (Wood, 1989). If the goal is
self-improvement, upward comparisons give the person something to strive toward (Wood,
1989). If the goal is self-enhancement, s/he is more likely to choose downward comparisons to
make his/herself look better in comparison to the other(s) (Wood, 1989). Similar comparisons
are used most commonly when self-evaluation is the goal (Martin & Kennedy, 1994). This
means that whom an audience member identifies with in the E-E program is going to be highly
dependant on one’s goals. Characters who go through the desired social changes need to be at an
adequate comparison level with regards to the audience for the type of comparison being made.
More research needs to be done on E-E programs to determine what types of attitude and
behavior change are best made through characters who are similar to the target audience versus
characters who are slightly different from them. We would suggest that characters for which
there is a downward comparison leads to one being satisfied that their life is not bad, and thereby
will not motivate change. And a drastic upward comparison might lead one to believe that
because they do not have the means of the character (e.g., enough money), then they will not be
able to make a similar change in their own life.
Empathy
Empathy is a sort of emotional identification (Harris, 1989). It is any experience in
which one responds to the presumed emotions of another based on his/her circumstances, bodily,
facial, paralinguistic and/or linguistic expression of emotion, or any other action the individual
takes in response to an emotional experience with an increase in excitation that is interpreted as
feeling with or for that individual (Zillmann, 1996). Empathy involves both cognition, needed in
1
For example, when the motive is self-evaluation, one might choose to make upward comparisons in order
to accurately evaluate their limitations and downward comparisons to evaluate their strengths.


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 14 of 29   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.