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An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 19 attending to the message and thus they do not empathize with them and do not vicariously learn from the situation. SELF-EFFICACY When one watches an E-E program and processes the message centrally and has the anticipated reactions of identification, empathy, or suspense, then the desired outcome is that they learn from the behaviors of the characters. One of the goals of E-E programs is to promote a feeling of self-efficacy, which is necessary for behavior change. Self-efficacy is defined as the belief in one’s capability to organize and execute the course of action required in order to produce given attainments (Bandura, 1997 p.3). According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is acquired through four principal sources of information: “enactive mastery experiences that serve as indicators of capability; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and psychological and affective states from which people partly judge their capableness, strength and vulnerability to dysfunction” (p.79). The concept of self-efficacy is an important component in E-E programs since the audience ideally identifies with the characters who demonstrate the desired behavior and thereby vicariously acquire the appropriate attitudes and learn the desired behavior. In his earlier work on social cognitive theory, Bandura distinguished among three basic processes of personal change: adoption of new behaviors, use under different circumstances, and maintenance of the behavior (Bandura, 1986). Each of these changes of behavior change are influenced by efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997) and therefore when designing a successful E-E program it is vital to consider how exactly the program will foster self-efficacy. The success of

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
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EE theory,
19
attending to the message and thus they do not empathize with them and do not vicariously learn
from the situation.
SELF-EFFICACY
When one watches an E-E program and processes the message centrally and has the
anticipated reactions of identification, empathy, or suspense, then the desired outcome is that
they learn from the behaviors of the characters. One of the goals of E-E programs is to promote
a feeling of self-efficacy, which is necessary for behavior change. Self-efficacy is defined as the
belief in one’s capability to organize and execute the course of action required in order to
produce given attainments (Bandura, 1997 p.3). According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is
acquired through four principal sources of information: “enactive mastery experiences that serve
as indicators of capability; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission
of competencies and comparison with attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of
social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and psychological and affective states
from which people partly judge their capableness, strength and vulnerability to dysfunction”
(p.79). The concept of self-efficacy is an important component in E-E programs since the
audience ideally identifies with the characters who demonstrate the desired behavior and thereby
vicariously acquire the appropriate attitudes and learn the desired behavior.
In his earlier work on social cognitive theory, Bandura distinguished among three basic
processes of personal change: adoption of new behaviors, use under different circumstances, and
maintenance of the behavior (Bandura, 1986). Each of these changes of behavior change are
influenced by efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997) and therefore when designing a successful E-E
program it is vital to consider how exactly the program will foster self-efficacy. The success of


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