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An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 21 factors that influence taste (age, sex, culture, personality traits, and mood), then information presented can be processed either peripherally or systematically. When messages are processed peripherally, there will either be no persuasive effect on the audience at all or the persuasive effect will be limited – as short-term change or by influencing cultivation effects that impact decisions made in unfamiliar situations or when one does not have time to think before reacting. If the audience processes the message systematically, then it is important that they have the appropriate cognitive and emotional responses through identification with characters, empathy for characters, and a feeling of suspense. If they do not believe that the emotional sequence is appropriate (e.g., culturally), then the E-E program will have no effect on their attitude and behavior. However if they do believe in the emotional sequence to be appropriate, then they begin to react to the characters, meaning that they will identify with them, empathize with their problems, and may vicariously learn the attitudes and behaviors that those characters they identify with display. This vicarious learning may lead to a feeling of self-efficacy when they see that these characters are successful at overcoming the difficulties that they are faced with and resolve the problem. Ideally this would then lead to behavior change. If self-efficacy is not produced, then it is still possible to have an attitude change. One might believe something is good or bad, but not have the feeling that they personally can do anything to change things. Attitude change, however, might be the only goal of the E-E program and thus it can be considered a success. Another possibility is that the E-E program might lead those who are absorbed with the plot to talk to others about what is happening with the characters. This interpersonal communication is another way that attitude and behavior change can occur. Through talking to other people, the audience member might become more persuaded by the messages and increase

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
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EE theory,
21
factors that influence taste (age, sex, culture, personality traits, and mood), then information
presented can be processed either peripherally or systematically. When messages are processed
peripherally, there will either be no persuasive effect on the audience at all or the persuasive
effect will be limited – as short-term change or by influencing cultivation effects that impact
decisions made in unfamiliar situations or when one does not have time to think before reacting.
If the audience processes the message systematically, then it is important that they have
the appropriate cognitive and emotional responses through identification with characters,
empathy for characters, and a feeling of suspense. If they do not believe that the emotional
sequence is appropriate (e.g., culturally), then the E-E program will have no effect on their
attitude and behavior. However if they do believe in the emotional sequence to be appropriate,
then they begin to react to the characters, meaning that they will identify with them, empathize
with their problems, and may vicariously learn the attitudes and behaviors that those characters
they identify with display. This vicarious learning may lead to a feeling of self-efficacy when
they see that these characters are successful at overcoming the difficulties that they are faced
with and resolve the problem. Ideally this would then lead to behavior change. If self-efficacy is
not produced, then it is still possible to have an attitude change. One might believe something is
good or bad, but not have the feeling that they personally can do anything to change things.
Attitude change, however, might be the only goal of the E-E program and thus it can be
considered a success.
Another possibility is that the E-E program might lead those who are absorbed with the
plot to talk to others about what is happening with the characters. This interpersonal
communication is another way that attitude and behavior change can occur. Through talking to
other people, the audience member might become more persuaded by the messages and increase


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