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An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 22 in his/her feelings of self-efficacy or collective efficacy. For example, one might discover that s/he has the social support needed for behavior change and thus feel better about making a change in his/her own life. Or a person might take the arguments that s/he learned in an E-E program to try to persuade another person to make behavior changes. A third way interpersonal communication inspired by an E-E program might produce change is through producing a sense of collective-efficacy. A small group of people could form together knowing that they all reacted to a program in a certain way and feel like together they can take on a challenge that none of them could do alone. Papa, Singhal, Law, Pant, Sood, Rogers, Shefner-Rogers (2000) emphasize the interpersonal aspect of behavior change. They found that behavior change in response to media exposure can be facilitated by parasocial interaction with the media characters, (what we refer to as part of identification above), and throw light upon the social process through which change takes place once the audience is involved and engaged with the E-E program. The authors cite another Papa, Auwal and Singhal (1995, 1997) article in order to explain “the process of change is facilitated when people share stories about how they respond to commonly experiences problems” (Papa, et al., 2000, p. 36). This practice of story telling is likely to encourage collective efficacy and bring about desired behavior change. It is important to note that some spectators may be absorbed by the characters and storyline, but will not experience self-efficacy because they do not have the anticipated reactions to the characters. For example, they may avoid the message that is intended to bring about attitudinal and behavior change since it creates cognitive dissonance or they may process and remember information that is inconsistent with their existing cognitive framework in a way not intended by the message creators. Certain factors also hinder the process such as beliefs that “the character can do it, but I cannot”. Beliefs like this makes the audience feel inadequate vis-à-vis

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
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EE theory,
22
in his/her feelings of self-efficacy or collective efficacy. For example, one might discover that
s/he has the social support needed for behavior change and thus feel better about making a
change in his/her own life. Or a person might take the arguments that s/he learned in an E-E
program to try to persuade another person to make behavior changes. A third way interpersonal
communication inspired by an E-E program might produce change is through producing a sense
of collective-efficacy. A small group of people could form together knowing that they all
reacted to a program in a certain way and feel like together they can take on a challenge that
none of them could do alone. Papa, Singhal, Law, Pant, Sood, Rogers, Shefner-Rogers (2000)
emphasize the interpersonal aspect of behavior change. They found that behavior change in
response to media exposure can be facilitated by parasocial interaction with the media characters,
(what we refer to as part of identification above), and throw light upon the social process through
which change takes place once the audience is involved and engaged with the E-E program. The
authors cite another Papa, Auwal and Singhal (1995, 1997) article in order to explain “the
process of change is facilitated when people share stories about how they respond to commonly
experiences problems” (Papa, et al., 2000, p. 36). This practice of story telling is likely to
encourage collective efficacy and bring about desired behavior change.
It is important to note that some spectators may be absorbed by the characters and
storyline, but will not experience self-efficacy because they do not have the anticipated reactions
to the characters. For example, they may avoid the message that is intended to bring about
attitudinal and behavior change since it creates cognitive dissonance or they may process and
remember information that is inconsistent with their existing cognitive framework in a way not
intended by the message creators. Certain factors also hinder the process such as beliefs that “the
character can do it, but I cannot”. Beliefs like this makes the audience feel inadequate vis-à-vis


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