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An Integrative Model of Entertainment-Education Processes and Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  EE theory, 3 Many different theories attempt to explain how entertainment education works. However, most of these theories are limited because they only include the ways in which an individual processes the persuasive messages, without fully considering what is unique about entertainment as compared to other means of persuasion. In this paper, we propose a model of successful E-E programs that integrates some of the concepts from the different psychological theories traditionally used to explain E-E, such as Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) elaboration likelihood model, Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory, Festinger’s social comparison theory (1954) and cognitive dissonance theory (1957), with concepts unique to theories of entertainment by Zillmann and Vorderer (See figure 1.1). Behavior change based upon E-E programs depends first on the selection of the program and then on the amount of attention paid to the program (Anderson & Burns, 1991). Therefore, the first step is to attract the intended audience to the program. The second part of a successful program depends on how individuals process messages. The idea is that viewers attending to the behavior of characters will remember those behaviors and make judgments of characters based on their behavior (Hoffner & Cantor, 1991). However, just processing the information in a systematic fashion that is most likely to lead to persuasion is not enough for successful attitude or behavior change; change also depends on how the audience reacts to the characters. We posit that, when the E-E program is attended to and processed with the desired reactions to characters, it is possible to experience the self-efficacy and engage in the interpersonal communication needed for attitude and behavior change. ATTRACTION TO PROGRAM Individual differences such as age, gender, culture, and personality traits affect the use and gratification of entertainment programs. Along with individual demographic differences that

Authors: Wilkin, Holley. and Fernandes, Sangeeta.
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EE theory,
3
Many different theories attempt to explain how entertainment education works.
However, most of these theories are limited because they only include the ways in which an
individual processes the persuasive messages, without fully considering what is unique about
entertainment as compared to other means of persuasion. In this paper, we propose a model of
successful E-E programs that integrates some of the concepts from the different psychological
theories traditionally used to explain E-E, such as Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) elaboration
likelihood model, Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory, Festinger’s social comparison theory
(1954) and cognitive dissonance theory (1957), with concepts unique to theories of entertainment
by Zillmann and Vorderer (See figure 1.1). Behavior change based upon E-E programs depends
first on the selection of the program and then on the amount of attention paid to the program
(Anderson & Burns, 1991). Therefore, the first step is to attract the intended audience to the
program. The second part of a successful program depends on how individuals process
messages. The idea is that viewers attending to the behavior of characters will remember those
behaviors and make judgments of characters based on their behavior (Hoffner & Cantor, 1991).
However, just processing the information in a systematic fashion that is most likely to lead to
persuasion is not enough for successful attitude or behavior change; change also depends on how
the audience reacts to the characters. We posit that, when the E-E program is attended to and
processed with the desired reactions to characters, it is possible to experience the self-efficacy
and engage in the interpersonal communication needed for attitude and behavior change.
ATTRACTION TO PROGRAM
Individual differences such as age, gender, culture, and personality traits affect the use
and gratification of entertainment programs. Along with individual demographic differences that


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