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Exploration of instructional communication environment: Mediated communication and communication apprehension
Unformatted Document Text:  Mediated instructional communication 3 Communication Apprehension as a Student Characteristic. The term “communication apprehension” originally referred to oral communication apprehension and it has often been used without the qualification of “oral” (McCroskey, 1984). Communication apprehension, however, is not confined to oral communication. Daly (1986) categorizes communication apprehension into different types: oral communication apprehension (Daly & McCroskey, 1984), writing apprehension (Daly, 1985), receiver apprehension (Wheeless, 1975) and singing apprehension (Andersen et al, 1978). Among these, oral communication apprehension is still the largest area of interest for many communication scholars despite the extensive past research that exists. According to the definition of McCroskey (1986), (oral) communication apprehension is "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons" (p. 24). It is examined in a number of communication contexts including public speaking and instructional communication. Noticeable as a recent trend, however, is the increasing attention that has been paid to the concept of writing apprehension. This has largely been in light of the increased use of technologically mediated communication in learning. The concept of writing apprehension was originally developed by Daly and Miller (1975). After they noted the presence of “students who seem to be unduly apprehensive about writing” (p. 242), Daly and Miller developed a way of studying “writing apprehension.” Daly and Miller consider students to have high writing apprehension when those students find “the demand for writing competency exceedingly frightening” (p. 244). Since computer- mediated communication is typically written communication in our current educational

Authors: Sugiyama, Satomi.
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Mediated instructional communication 3
Communication Apprehension as a Student Characteristic.
The term “communication apprehension” originally referred to oral
communication apprehension and it has often been used without the qualification of
“oral” (McCroskey, 1984). Communication apprehension, however, is not confined to
oral communication. Daly (1986) categorizes communication apprehension into different
types: oral communication apprehension (Daly & McCroskey, 1984), writing
apprehension (Daly, 1985), receiver apprehension (Wheeless, 1975) and singing
apprehension (Andersen et al, 1978).
Among these, oral communication apprehension is still the largest area of interest
for many communication scholars despite the extensive past research that exists.
According to the definition of McCroskey (1986), (oral) communication apprehension is
"an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated
communication with another person or persons" (p. 24). It is examined in a number of
communication contexts including public speaking and instructional communication.
Noticeable as a recent trend, however, is the increasing attention that has been
paid to the concept of writing apprehension. This has largely been in light of the
increased use of technologically mediated communication in learning. The concept of
writing apprehension was originally developed by Daly and Miller (1975). After they
noted the presence of “students who seem to be unduly apprehensive about writing” (p.
242), Daly and Miller developed a way of studying “writing apprehension.” Daly and
Miller consider students to have high writing apprehension when those students find “the
demand for writing competency exceedingly frightening” (p. 244). Since computer-
mediated communication is typically written communication in our current educational


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