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Exploration of instructional communication environment: Mediated communication and communication apprehension
Unformatted Document Text:  Mediated instructional communication 8 Instruments As for oral communication apprehension, McCroskey’s (1982) Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) was adopted. Self-report measures are the most useful for measuring communication apprehension because this construct is directed toward the cognitions of the individual, which is uniquely suited to self-report measurement (McCroskey, 1984). This is a well-established and widely used scale for oral communication apprehension. After data was collected, the obtained score for each item was summed to produce a total communication apprehension score. To determine the presence of writing apprehension, Daly and Miller’s (1975) writing apprehension scale was employed. Learning media were operationalized by the following: small class (face-to-face with a lot of communication opportunities with instructor), large class (face-to-face with little communication opportunity with instructor), Internet (technologically mediated with some interaction), and TV (technologically mediated without any interaction with instructor). Participants were asked to respond using a 5-point Lickert scale from 5 being “very interested” to 1 being “not interested at all.” As for extra-class communication behavior, students were asked to respond to the following three statements: 1) I often communicate with my instructor(s) via email, 2) I often talk with my instructor(s) before or after class, 3) I often visit office hours of my instructor(s). For these questions, 5 point Lickert scale was used from 5 being “strongly agree” to 1 being “strongly disagree.”

Authors: Sugiyama, Satomi.
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Mediated instructional communication 8
Instruments
As for oral communication apprehension, McCroskey’s (1982) Personal Report of
Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) was adopted. Self-report measures are the
most useful for measuring communication apprehension because this construct is directed
toward the cognitions of the individual, which is uniquely suited to self-report
measurement (McCroskey, 1984). This is a well-established and widely used scale for
oral communication apprehension. After data was collected, the obtained score for each
item was summed to produce a total communication apprehension score.
To determine the presence of writing apprehension, Daly and Miller’s (1975)
writing apprehension scale was employed. Learning media were operationalized by the
following: small class (face-to-face with a lot of communication opportunities with
instructor), large class (face-to-face with little communication opportunity with
instructor), Internet (technologically mediated with some interaction), and TV
(technologically mediated without any interaction with instructor). Participants were
asked to respond using a 5-point Lickert scale from 5 being “very interested” to 1 being
“not interested at all.” As for extra-class communication behavior, students were asked
to respond to the following three statements: 1) I often communicate with my instructor(s)
via email, 2) I often talk with my instructor(s) before or after class, 3) I often visit office
hours of my instructor(s). For these questions, 5 point Lickert scale was used from 5
being “strongly agree” to 1 being “strongly disagree.”


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