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Retesting the Marketplace Theory of Media Use
Unformatted Document Text:  Retesting the Marketplace Theory of Media Use—9 factor was identified (eigenvalue=1.699, variance explained=42.472). The reliability quotient was low (alpha=.52). For Newspaper B, one factor was identified (eigenvalue=1.841, variance explained=46.024). The reliability quotient was also somewhat low (alpha=.60). Attitudes toward journalism. Beaudoin and Thorson (2002) found two dimensions to attitudes toward journalism: attitudes toward diversity aspects of journalism and attitudes toward financial aspects of journalism. There were two statements for diversity aspects (see Appendix). They did not, however, appear to form useful dimensions (Newspaper A, corr.= .115, p < .001; Newspaper B, corr. = .175, p < .001). Although significant, these correlations are low and, thus, were deemed to be unreliable measures of attitudes toward diversity aspects of journalism. (In addition, factor analysis failed to offer different dimensions to these two attitude groupings.) Thus, we dropped these two statements from further analysis. We implemented two statements to measure attitudes toward the financial aspects of journalism (see Appendix): Newspaper A (corr.=.406, p<.001) and Newspaper B (corr.=.463, p<.001). In each case, a higher score indicates a more positive (or more socially conscious) response. In addition, demographics were used as control variables. Education was measured on a 4-point scale from “high school grad or less” (1) to “post-graduate training” (4), and income was measured on a 5-point scale from “less than $25,000” (1) to “$150,000 and more” (5). Also, there were measures for gender (M=), ethnicity (W=1), and age. Analysis We conducted structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS 4.01. SEM involves simultaneous regressions and estimates direct and indirect effects. We tested the specified models for each of the two newspapers. We used two model fit indices—the comparative fit index (CFI) and the normed fit index (NFI). Values fall between 0 and 1, with 0.95 indicating a good fit between the observed data and the specified model (Kaplan, 2000). By using critical ratios to evaluate path significance, we determined if the ratio of an estimate to its standard error exceeded 1.960 and 2.576 (indicating significance at the .05 and .01 levels, respectively) (Hoyle, 1995). In

Authors: Beaudoin, Christopher. and Thorson, Esther.
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Retesting the Marketplace Theory of Media Use—9
factor was identified (eigenvalue=1.699, variance explained=42.472). The reliability quotient was
low (alpha=.52). For Newspaper B, one factor was identified (eigenvalue=1.841, variance
explained=46.024). The reliability quotient was also somewhat low (alpha=.60).
Attitudes toward journalism. Beaudoin and Thorson (2002) found two dimensions to
attitudes toward journalism: attitudes toward diversity aspects of journalism and attitudes toward
financial aspects of journalism. There were two statements for diversity aspects (see Appendix).
They did not, however, appear to form useful dimensions (Newspaper A, corr.= .115, p < .001;
Newspaper B, corr. = .175, p < .001). Although significant, these correlations are low and, thus,
were deemed to be unreliable measures of attitudes toward diversity aspects of journalism. (In
addition, factor analysis failed to offer different dimensions to these two attitude groupings.)
Thus, we dropped these two statements from further analysis. We implemented two statements to
measure attitudes toward the financial aspects of journalism (see Appendix): Newspaper A
(corr.=.406, p<.001) and Newspaper B (corr.=.463, p<.001). In each case, a higher score indicates
a more positive (or more socially conscious) response.
In addition, demographics were used as control variables. Education was measured on a
4-point scale from “high school grad or less” (1) to “post-graduate training” (4), and income was
measured on a 5-point scale from “less than $25,000” (1) to “$150,000 and more” (5). Also, there
were measures for gender (M=), ethnicity (W=1), and age.
Analysis
We conducted structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS 4.01. SEM involves
simultaneous regressions and estimates direct and indirect effects. We tested the specified models
for each of the two newspapers. We used two model fit indices—the comparative fit index (CFI)
and the normed fit index (NFI). Values fall between 0 and 1, with 0.95 indicating a good fit
between the observed data and the specified model (Kaplan, 2000). By using critical ratios to
evaluate path significance, we determined if the ratio of an estimate to its standard error exceeded
1.960 and 2.576 (indicating significance at the .05 and .01 levels, respectively) (Hoyle, 1995). In


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