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Hispanic Women, Breast Cancer Screening and Preferences for Breast Health Information:
Unformatted Document Text:  Breast Cancer Screening 6 by two of the present study’s researchers. We created a semi-structured protocol to guide the discussions (see Appendix for the protocol). Participants indicated that they were U. S. nationals (n = 10) or from Mexico (n = 10) and Cuba (n = 1). Preference for language included Spanish (n = 10), English (n = 8) and three who were equally comfortable with Spanish and English. Fifteen of the women were married. Six were homemakers and 13 were employed. The distribution of family income included a broad range: under $10,000 (n = 5), $10,000 to $20,000 (n = 2), $20,001 to $30,000 (n = 4), $30,001 to $40,000 (n = 2), $40,001 to $50,000 (n = 2), and over $50,000 (n= 2). Three women did not indicate income. Almost all of the women (n = 19) had children with the average number of two children per woman. Over half of the participants had health insurance (n = 12). Recruitment of participants primarily occurred through community contacts and snowball sampling. Contacts were also initiated by informational flyers and email announcements. Sessions lasted 90 minutes on average. For their involvement, participants were given $15. The researchers also provided light snacks and refreshments during each session. Sessions were audio taped and transcribed. Group D was videotaped in addition to the audio recording. Data Analysis To interpret the discussion from the four focus groups, we used Bormann’s (1985) fantasy theme analysis. According to Bormann, communication generates reality through the connection of symbols individuals utilize and the experience and knowledge they acquire, which converge to create a shared reality within a group or community (1985). Fantasy theme analysis is a product of Bormann’s symbolic convergence theory. In this theory, the primary assumption is that individuals come together with common symbols and experiences and communicate with each other to construct their reality. The shared experiences of individuals shift to themes that

Authors: DeVargas, Felicia., Sanchez, Christina. and Oetzel, John.
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Breast Cancer Screening 6
by two of the present study’s researchers. We created a semi-structured protocol to guide the
discussions (see Appendix for the protocol).
Participants indicated that they were U. S. nationals (n = 10) or from Mexico (n = 10) and
Cuba (n = 1). Preference for language included Spanish (n = 10), English (n = 8) and three who
were equally comfortable with Spanish and English. Fifteen of the women were married. Six
were homemakers and 13 were employed. The distribution of family income included a broad
range: under $10,000 (n = 5), $10,000 to $20,000 (n = 2), $20,001 to $30,000 (n = 4), $30,001 to
$40,000 (n = 2), $40,001 to $50,000 (n = 2), and over $50,000 (n= 2). Three women did not
indicate income. Almost all of the women (n = 19) had children with the average number of two
children per woman. Over half of the participants had health insurance (n = 12).
Recruitment of participants primarily occurred through community contacts and snowball
sampling. Contacts were also initiated by informational flyers and email announcements.
Sessions lasted 90 minutes on average. For their involvement, participants were given $15. The
researchers also provided light snacks and refreshments during each session. Sessions were audio
taped and transcribed. Group D was videotaped in addition to the audio recording.
Data Analysis
To interpret the discussion from the four focus groups, we used Bormann’s (1985)
fantasy theme analysis. According to Bormann, communication generates reality through the
connection of symbols individuals utilize and the experience and knowledge they acquire, which
converge to create a shared reality within a group or community (1985). Fantasy theme analysis
is a product of Bormann’s symbolic convergence theory. In this theory, the primary assumption
is that individuals come together with common symbols and experiences and communicate with
each other to construct their reality. The shared experiences of individuals shift to themes that


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