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Enabling Women's Agency: Arab Women Speak Out
Unformatted Document Text:  Tracking #: ICA-19-11265 The Arab Women Speak Out project seems to give women a venue where they can—and have consistently chosen to—reclaim their voices, identify optimal ways of acting through internalization aided by group discussions, and transform their contexts through their external activities. Yet, further study is needed of the longer-term effects of participation in the workshop. In particular, it is important to establish whether the actions women took, which were often incremental shifts at the margins, can ultimately bring about broader transformative actions that are consonant with the vision of those who will live with the unintended as well as intended consequences of social change. 1 Mohanty, C.T. 1991. “Cartographies of Struggle” in Mohanty, C.T., A. Russo, and L. Torres, editors. Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IL, US. Pp. 1-50. 2 Staff members of the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs in association with CAWTAR, the Center for Arab Women Research and Training, located in Tunis, Tunisia, conceptualized and guided the program’s development and implementation. 3 World Bank. 1994 (page 7). “Enhancing Women’s Participation in Economic Development.” A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington, D.C. 4 Boserup, E. 1970. Women’s Role in Economic Development. Allen & Unwin, London, UK. 5 Beneria, L. and S. Feldman, editors. 1992. Unequal Burden: Economic crisis, persistent poverty and women’s work. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA. 6 Tinker, I and M.B. Bramsen. 1976. Women and World Development. Praeger: New York, NY, USA. 7 Birdsall, N. and McGreevey, W.P. 1983. “Women, poverty, and development” in Buvinic, M., Lycetter, A., and McGreevey, W.P., editors. Women and poverty in the Third World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA. Pp. 3-13. 8 Pietila, H. and J. Vickers. 1990. Making women matter: the role of the United Nations. Zed Books, London, UK 9 Anderson, Ralph E. and Irl Carter. 1997. Human Behavior in the Social Environment: The Social Systems Approach, New York: Aldine Publishing Company. 10 Freire, P. 1986 [1970]. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. 11 Servaes, J. 1989. One world, multiple cultures: a new paradigm on communication for development. Leuven, Belgium: ACCO. 12 White, S.A. (1994). "The concept of participation: transforming rhetoric to reality" in White, S.A. et al. 1994. Participatory communication: working for change and development. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications. 13 Atwood, J.B. 1993. Statement of Principles on Participatory Development. USAID: Washington, DC. USA. 14 World Bank. 2001. Adjustment from Within: Lessons from the Structural Adjustment Participatory Review. (A contribution from the World Bank to the Second Global SAPRI Forum.) Washington, DC: World Bank. 15 Freire, P. 1986 [1970]. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 70-71. Freire seems to use the term ‘men’ generically to refer to men and women. 16 Based on her research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s, the anthropologist Margaret Mead was one of the first people to propose that masculine and feminine characteristics reflect cultural conditioning (or socialization) and not simply fundamental biological differences, thus leading to the distinction between gender and sex. 17 World Bank. 1994 (page 67). “Enhancing Women’s Participation in Economic Development.” A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington, D.C. 18 Freire, 1986 [1970], 73. 19 Markus, H.R. and S. Kitayama, 1991. “Culture and Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation” in Psychological Review, Vol. 98, No. 2: 224-253. 20 Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York, NY. 21 Ibid. 22 Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Authors: Underwood, Carol R. and Jabre, Bushra.
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background image
Tracking #: ICA-19-11265
The Arab Women Speak Out project seems to give women a venue where they can—and have
consistently chosen to—reclaim their voices, identify optimal ways of acting through internalization
aided by group discussions, and transform their contexts through their external activities. Yet, further
study is needed of the longer-term effects of participation in the workshop. In particular, it is important
to establish whether the actions women took, which were often incremental shifts at the margins, can
ultimately bring about broader transformative actions that are consonant with the vision of those who
will live with the unintended as well as intended consequences of social change.
1
Mohanty, C.T. 1991. “Cartographies of Struggle” in Mohanty, C.T., A. Russo, and L. Torres, editors.
Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IL, US. Pp.
1-50.
2
Staff members of the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs in association with CAWTAR,
the Center for Arab Women Research and Training, located in Tunis, Tunisia, conceptualized and guided
the program’s development and implementation.
3
World Bank. 1994 (page 7). “Enhancing Women’s Participation in Economic Development.” A World
Bank Policy Paper. Washington, D.C.
4
Boserup, E. 1970. Women’s Role in Economic Development. Allen & Unwin, London, UK.
5
Beneria, L. and S. Feldman, editors. 1992. Unequal Burden: Economic crisis, persistent poverty and
women’s work. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA.
6
Tinker, I and M.B. Bramsen. 1976. Women and World Development. Praeger: New York, NY, USA.
7
Birdsall, N. and McGreevey, W.P. 1983. “Women, poverty, and development” in Buvinic, M., Lycetter,
A., and McGreevey, W.P., editors. Women and poverty in the Third World. Johns Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore, MD, USA. Pp. 3-13.
8
Pietila, H. and J. Vickers. 1990. Making women matter: the role of the United Nations. Zed Books,
London, UK
9
Anderson, Ralph E. and Irl Carter. 1997. Human Behavior in the Social Environment: The Social Systems
Approach, New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
10
Freire, P. 1986 [1970]. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.
11
Servaes, J. 1989. One world, multiple cultures: a new paradigm on communication for development.
Leuven, Belgium: ACCO.
12
White, S.A. (1994). "The concept of participation: transforming rhetoric to reality" in White, S.A. et al.
1994. Participatory communication: working for change and development. New Delhi, India: Sage
Publications.
13
Atwood, J.B. 1993. Statement of Principles on Participatory Development. USAID: Washington, DC.
USA.
14
World Bank. 2001. Adjustment from Within: Lessons from the Structural Adjustment Participatory
Review. (A contribution from the World Bank to the Second Global SAPRI Forum.) Washington, DC:
World Bank.
15
Freire, P. 1986 [1970]. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 70-71. Freire seems to use the
term ‘men’ generically to refer to men and women.
16
Based on her research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s, the anthropologist Margaret Mead was one of
the first people to propose that masculine and feminine characteristics reflect cultural conditioning (or
socialization) and not simply fundamental biological differences, thus leading to the distinction between
gender and sex.
17
World Bank. 1994 (page 67). “Enhancing Women’s Participation in Economic Development.” A World
Bank Policy Paper. Washington, D.C.
18
Freire, 1986 [1970], 73.
19
Markus, H.R. and S. Kitayama, 1991. “Culture and Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and
Motivation” in Psychological Review, Vol. 98, No. 2: 224-253.
20
Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York,
NY.
21
Ibid.
22
Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


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