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Enabling Women's Agency: Arab Women Speak Out
Unformatted Document Text:  Tracking #: ICA-19-11265 23 Hegel, W.F.H. 1979 [1807]. Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by J.N. Findlay. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hegel argues that the master, through consumption, destroys, while the slave, through work, creates. The master’s consumption is dependent upon the slave, so is impermanent; the slave’s work passes into entities with a permanent existence (such as knowledge). In terms of activity theory, one might say that the slave is transformed by developing tools; once developed, those tools in turn change the slave. 24 Sen, A. 1995. "Agency and Well-being: The Development Agenda" in A Commitment of the World’s Women: Perspectives on Development for Beijing and Beyond. N. Heyzer, editor. New York: UNIFEM. 25 Cleland, J. and Wilson, C. Demand Theories of Fertility Transition: An Iconoclastic View. Population Studies 1987, 41:5-30. 26 Conceived by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Arab Women Speak Out, was developed in association with CAWTAR, the Center for Arab Women Research and Training, Tunis. 27 Bandura, 1997, 3. 28 Jabre, Bushra, Carol Underwood and Lauren Goodsmith. Arab Women Speak Out: Profiles of Self- Empowerment. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Baltimore, Maryland and the Center of Arab Women for Training and Research, Tunis, Tunisia, November 1997. 29 While the training manual topics are equally relevant to men and participants expressed the importance of men’s involvement in the project, only a few men have participated to date. 30 As there is no equivalent in Arabic for the term “gender” as understood today, we chose to refer to gender constructs as “social roles.” 31 Kiiti, N. & Nielsen, E. 1999. “The Advocate and the Facilitator: What’s the Difference?” In Shirley White, The Art of Facilitating Participation: Releasing the Power of Grassroots Communication. New Delhi: Sage Publications. 32 One Yemeni, 11 Egyptian, six Jordanian facilitators selected participants based on a random selection procedure and conducted face-to-face interviews.

Authors: Underwood, Carol R. and Jabre, Bushra.
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Tracking #: ICA-19-11265
23
Hegel, W.F.H. 1979 [1807]. Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by J.N. Findlay. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. Hegel argues that the master, through consumption, destroys, while the slave, through
work, creates. The master’s consumption is dependent upon the slave, so is impermanent; the slave’s
work passes into entities with a permanent existence (such as knowledge). In terms of activity theory,
one might say that the slave is transformed by developing tools; once developed, those tools in turn
change the slave.
24
Sen, A. 1995. "Agency and Well-being: The Development Agenda" in A Commitment of the World’s
Women: Perspectives on Development for Beijing and Beyond. N. Heyzer, editor. New York:
UNIFEM.
25
Cleland, J. and Wilson, C. Demand Theories of Fertility Transition: An Iconoclastic View. Population
Studies 1987, 41:5-30.
26
Conceived by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Arab Women Speak Out, was
developed in association with CAWTAR, the Center for Arab Women Research and Training, Tunis.
27
Bandura, 1997, 3.
28
Jabre, Bushra, Carol Underwood and Lauren Goodsmith. Arab Women Speak Out: Profiles of Self-
Empowerment. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs,
Baltimore, Maryland and the Center of Arab Women for Training and Research, Tunis, Tunisia,
November 1997.
29
While the training manual topics are equally relevant to men and participants expressed the importance
of men’s involvement in the project, only a few men have participated to date.
30
As there is no equivalent in Arabic for the term “gender” as understood today, we chose to refer to
gender constructs as “social roles.”
31
Kiiti, N. & Nielsen, E. 1999. “The Advocate and the Facilitator: What’s the Difference?” In Shirley
White, The Art of Facilitating Participation: Releasing the Power of Grassroots Communication. New
Delhi: Sage Publications.
32
One Yemeni, 11 Egyptian, six Jordanian facilitators selected participants based on a random selection
procedure and conducted face-to-face interviews.


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