All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Enabling Women's Agency: Arab Women Speak Out
Unformatted Document Text:  Tracking #: ICA-19-11265 Independent variables. Sociodemographic factors, which included respondents’ age, nationality, marital status, number of children, educational attainment and work status, together with participation in the project constituted the independent variables. To measure knowledge-related factors respondents were asked whether they knew where and how to obtain information regarding: loans for personal or business needs, health matters, training they might need, personal affairs, local activities, and women’s committees. To assess efficacy, all respondents were asked whether they believe they are able to: make decisions regarding themselves, make decisions for their family, work for an income, offer their opinions about family matters, state their opinions regarding local issues, and participate in local affairs. Indices for access to information and reported self-efficacy were created by summing positive responses to each of the items in the respective categories. Perceived support for agency was measured by asking respondents whether the following people supported, opposed or were neutral when the respondent decided to take part in activities outside the home, such as working or participating in community meetings: husband (if married), mother, father, sister, brother, women in the community, men in the community. An index was created by giving one point for each individual or category that was perceived to support the respondent’s actions, no points if neutral, and a negative point for those who were perceived to oppose the respondent’s actions. Dependent variables. To assess agency, women were asked whether they had carried out any of six actions in the 12 months prior to the survey: applied for a personal or business loan, participated in local efforts to improve health services or health status in their communities, talked with other women regarding negotiating skills, participated in community meetings, or had voted in the most recent election. By summing positive responses to the six items, an overall score for agency was created. Data Analyses To determine statistical significance in bivariate analyses (e.g., comparisons between participants and non-participants, association between dependent and independent variables), the researchers used Chi-square tests of differences in proportions and Student’s t-tests for the difference in means. Independent variables significantly correlated (p < .05) with the dependent variables at the bivariate level were included in the regression analyses. Logistic regression models were used to measure the relative importance of the different independent variables on two measures of agency: namely, participation in community activities and entrepreneurship. Age, marital status, educational attainment, and work status served as control variables. Results Characteristics of the Sample The sample comprised 254 participants and 117 non-participants (controls). They were, on Table 1. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Respondents, by Participation Status Characteristic Non-participants (n = 117) Participants (n =254) p value Age (mean)+ 30.4 30.1 NS Educational attainment Non-literate Some primary/literacy classes Completed primary and/or prep Some secondary Completed/continued beyond secondary 19.6 15.6 12.4 21.2 31.2 24.8 20.3 8.0 22.1 24.8 NS Marital Status Single Married, divorced, widowed 35.8 64.2 37.4 62.6 NS Work status Employed Earns Income from sale of goods/services 21.7 27.8 20.9 7.8 NS .020 + Student’s t-test Source: 2001 Arab Women Speak Out Posttest Survey, JHU/CCP

Authors: Underwood, Carol R. and Jabre, Bushra.
first   previous   Page 7 of 12   next   last



background image
Tracking #: ICA-19-11265
Independent variables. Sociodemographic factors, which included respondents’ age, nationality,
marital status, number of children, educational attainment and work status, together with
participation in the project constituted the independent variables.

To measure knowledge-related factors respondents were asked whether they knew where and
how to obtain information regarding: loans for personal or business needs, health matters, training
they might need, personal affairs, local activities, and women’s committees. To assess efficacy,
all respondents were asked whether they believe they are able to: make decisions regarding
themselves, make decisions for their family, work for an income, offer their opinions about
family matters, state their opinions regarding local issues, and participate in local affairs. Indices
for access to information and reported self-efficacy were created by summing positive responses
to each of the items in the respective categories. Perceived support for agency was measured by
asking respondents whether the following people supported, opposed or were neutral when the
respondent decided to take part in activities outside the home, such as working or participating in
community meetings: husband (if married), mother, father, sister, brother, women in the
community, men in the community. An index was created by giving one point for each individual
or category that was perceived to support the respondent’s actions, no points if neutral, and a
negative point for those who were perceived to oppose the respondent’s actions.

Dependent variables. To assess agency, women were asked whether they had carried out any of
six actions in the 12 months prior to the survey: applied for a personal or business loan,
participated in local efforts to improve health services or health status in their communities,
talked with other women regarding negotiating skills, participated in community meetings, or had
voted in the most recent election. By summing positive responses to the six items, an overall
score for agency was created.

Data Analyses
To determine statistical significance in bivariate analyses (e.g., comparisons between participants
and non-participants, association between dependent and independent variables), the researchers
used Chi-square tests of differences in proportions and Student’s t-tests for the difference in
means. Independent variables significantly correlated (p < .05) with the dependent variables at
the bivariate level were included in the regression analyses. Logistic regression models were used
to measure the relative importance of the different independent variables on two measures of
agency: namely, participation in community activities and entrepreneurship. Age, marital status,
educational attainment, and work status served as control variables.
Results
Characteristics of the Sample
The sample comprised 254 participants and 117 non-participants (controls). They were, on
Table 1. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Respondents, by Participation Status

Characteristic
Non-participants
(n = 117)
Participants
(n =254)
p value
Age (mean)+ 30.4
30.1
NS
Educational attainment
Non-literate
Some primary/literacy classes
Completed primary and/or prep
Some secondary
Completed/continued beyond secondary
19.6
15.6
12.4
21.2
31.2
24.8
20.3
8.0
22.1
24.8
NS
Marital Status
Single
Married, divorced, widowed
35.8
64.2
37.4
62.6
NS
Work status
Employed
Earns Income from sale of goods/services
21.7
27.8
20.9
7.8
NS
.020
+ Student’s t-test
Source: 2001 Arab Women Speak Out Posttest Survey, JHU/CCP


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 7 of 12   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.