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Evolution, Exchange and Coordination: Implications for Organizational Communication
Unformatted Document Text:  Evolution, Exchange and Coordination 20 phones, also creates novel expectations for work performance that fall outside the parameters of stipulated exchange terms. Not surprisingly, employees are resentful of such practices (e.g., Veiga & Deschant, 1997). Participation programs too seem to call for involvement beyond an established resource exchange contract. Evidently, those participation programs that grant employees greatest autonomy in dictating the terms of the added role, as well as those that remunerate employees for their extra efforts have a better track record in terms of success (e.g., see Siebold & Shea, 2001). Finally, there are several ways that an employee’s contract with the organization can be terminated. All, it would seem, involve the realization for one, or both parties, that the exchange and coordination costs outweigh the benefits. In voluntary turnover initiated by the employee, more lucrative exchange contracts with another organization may act as the lure. Or, the organization may have failed to coordinate internal exchanges between the employee and role set members (i.e., through grievance technologies), making the costs of such exchanges too burdensome to endure (e.g., sexual harassment). Typically, so that the organization has an opportunity to minimize the costs associated with losing an employee, the termination is coordinated by policies requiring that the departing employee give the organization adequate notice. Involuntary turnover can be of several kinds. First, as we have seen, employees can be ‘let go’ whenever the organization perceives that they are not holding up their end of the exchange bargain. However, organizations go to great lengths to ensure that such decisions are premeditated. Appraisal and disciplinary systems, serve to reinforce or recalibrate the exchange contract, and provide the employee with fair warning of performance that is incommensurate with contractual terms, while protecting the organization from retaliation from the employee, who, reliant on external legal technologies, can attempt to level charges of inequitable exchange practices at the organization. In addition, employees’ contracts with the organization can be voided with little advance notice. Layoffs, and other typically sudden contractual violations invariably cause tremendous resentment on the part of terminated employees, and a loss of trust in management on the part of stayers (e.g., Petzall & Parker, 2000). For individuals reaching the age of retirement, social technologies have been created (e.g., a mandatory retirement age) to eliminate the costs associated with having to determine whether or not they are capable of fulfilling their contractual obligations with the organization. Exit interviews are final exchange coordination opportunities between employee and organization and are probably designed to offer both parties an opportunity to weigh in on the equitable nature of their past relationship. It is perhaps not surprising that honest exchanges during such contexts appear related to employees’ perceptions of negative and positive equitable treatment (e.g., Giacalone & Knouse, 1997). Before other bodies of evidence for domain-specific psychological designs can be offered, it must be stressed that the preceding section is not offered as an exhaustive review of the literature in

Authors: Teboul, JC. Bruno. and Cole, Tim.
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Evolution, Exchange and Coordination
20
phones, also creates novel expectations for work performance that fall outside the parameters of stipulated
exchange terms. Not surprisingly, employees are resentful of such practices (e.g., Veiga & Deschant,
1997). Participation programs too seem to call for involvement beyond an established resource exchange
contract. Evidently, those participation programs that grant employees greatest autonomy in dictating the
terms of the added role, as well as those that remunerate employees for their extra efforts have a better
track record in terms of success (e.g., see Siebold & Shea, 2001).
Finally, there are several ways that an employee’s contract with the organization can be
terminated. All, it would seem, involve the realization for one, or both parties, that the exchange and
coordination costs outweigh the benefits. In voluntary turnover initiated by the employee, more lucrative
exchange contracts with another organization may act as the lure. Or, the organization may have failed to
coordinate internal exchanges between the employee and role set members (i.e., through grievance
technologies), making the costs of such exchanges too burdensome to endure (e.g., sexual harassment).
Typically, so that the organization has an opportunity to minimize the costs associated with losing an
employee, the termination is coordinated by policies requiring that the departing employee give the
organization adequate notice. Involuntary turnover can be of several kinds. First, as we have seen,
employees can be ‘let go’ whenever the organization perceives that they are not holding up their end of
the exchange bargain. However, organizations go to great lengths to ensure that such decisions are
premeditated. Appraisal and disciplinary systems, serve to reinforce or recalibrate the exchange contract,
and provide the employee with fair warning of performance that is incommensurate with contractual
terms, while protecting the organization from retaliation from the employee, who, reliant on external legal
technologies, can attempt to level charges of inequitable exchange practices at the organization. In
addition, employees’ contracts with the organization can be voided with little advance notice. Layoffs,
and other typically sudden contractual violations invariably cause tremendous resentment on the part of
terminated employees, and a loss of trust in management on the part of stayers (e.g., Petzall & Parker,
2000). For individuals reaching the age of retirement, social technologies have been created (e.g., a
mandatory retirement age) to eliminate the costs associated with having to determine whether or not they
are capable of fulfilling their contractual obligations with the organization.
Exit interviews are final exchange coordination opportunities between employee and organization
and are probably designed to offer both parties an opportunity to weigh in on the equitable nature of their
past relationship. It is perhaps not surprising that honest exchanges during such contexts appear related to
employees’ perceptions of negative and positive equitable treatment (e.g., Giacalone & Knouse, 1997).
Before other bodies of evidence for domain-specific psychological designs can be offered, it must
be stressed that the preceding section is not offered as an exhaustive review of the literature in


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