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you a stone freak in yo own skin: Missy Elliott's and Lil' Kim's Constructions of Black Womanhood
Unformatted Document Text:  Black Womanhood 10 studies focus solely on rap music lyrics or male artists (Dixon and Linz, 1997; Fischoff, 1999; Fried, 1999; Johnson, Trawalter and Dovidio; Wester et al., 1997). These effects have been tested on predominantly white and/or male audiences. Furthermore, some studies focused on potential attitudinal or behavioral effects such as sexual aggression against women (Barongan and Hall, 1995; Johnson, J.D., Adams, M.S., et al., 1995). Effects studies on black women and popular music, rap music in particular, are very rare. Black women as subjects usually only make up a small portion of a larger number of subjects such as in studies by Fischoff (1999), Johnson, Adams, et al. (1995), Johnson, Trawalter and Dovidio (1999) and Zillman, Aust, et al. (1995). The Johnson, Adams, et al. findings are especially valuable in that male controls showed greater acceptance of violence toward women than female controls, evidence that rap music videos could have some effect on attitudes. Making that finding even more stunning is that the subjects (30 African-American boys and 30 African-American girls ages 11-16) exposed to violent rap music videos showed greater acceptance of violence toward women; exposed females showed greater acceptance than the female controls. Even though effects studies of them are rare, African-American women are not completely ignored in mass media studies. However, many studies do not involve experiments but rather close readings of media texts (Roberts, 1994; Shelton, 1997). Roberts (1994) provides an "Afrocentric feminist" reading of Queen Latifah’s "Ladies First" music video. She argues that the video breaks the continuity of sexism and racism that dominates music video and refutes the notion that popular culture texts always exploit gender and Afrocentricity. She also declares that feminist rap videos are considered to be the most radical because of rap’s "inherent" misogyny. Nevertheless,

Authors: Brooks, TaKeshia.
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Black Womanhood 10
studies focus solely on rap music lyrics or male artists (Dixon and Linz, 1997; Fischoff,
1999; Fried, 1999; Johnson, Trawalter and Dovidio; Wester et al., 1997). These effects
have been tested on predominantly white and/or male audiences. Furthermore, some
studies focused on potential attitudinal or behavioral effects such as sexual aggression
against women (Barongan and Hall, 1995; Johnson, J.D., Adams, M.S., et al., 1995).
Effects studies on black women and popular music, rap music in particular, are
very rare. Black women as subjects usually only make up a small portion of a larger
number of subjects such as in studies by Fischoff (1999), Johnson, Adams, et al. (1995),
Johnson, Trawalter and Dovidio (1999) and Zillman, Aust, et al. (1995). The Johnson,
Adams, et al. findings are especially valuable in that male controls showed greater
acceptance of violence toward women than female controls, evidence that rap music
videos could have some effect on attitudes. Making that finding even more stunning is
that the subjects (30 African-American boys and 30 African-American girls ages 11-16)
exposed to violent rap music videos showed greater acceptance of violence toward
women; exposed females showed greater acceptance than the female controls.
Even though effects studies of them are rare, African-American women are not
completely ignored in mass media studies. However, many studies do not involve
experiments but rather close readings of media texts (Roberts, 1994; Shelton, 1997).
Roberts (1994) provides an "Afrocentric feminist" reading of Queen Latifah’s "Ladies
First" music video. She argues that the video breaks the continuity of sexism and racism
that dominates music video and refutes the notion that popular culture texts always
exploit gender and Afrocentricity. She also declares that feminist rap videos are
considered to be the most radical because of rap’s "inherent" misogyny. Nevertheless,


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