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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 10 Comparison Group Sending Sessions Instruments and Procedures. The study utilized the same slide viewing procedures and equipment described previously (see Sheehan, 2002). Participants were scheduled individually in one-hour time blocks. When the participant arrived he/she was asked to read and sign an informed consent form stating in part that the participant’s image might be recorded at some point during the study. After signing, the participant completed scales assessing rational and experiential thinking, and extraversion, along with demographic questions (age, gender, Grade Point Average). 3 The participant was then instructed to sit in front of the back-lighted slide projector and the black box containing the miniature hidden camera, signal light, and timing device described previously. The slide viewing equipment was placed on a large table and the participant was seated 2.5 feet from the table. The participant’s blood pressure and pulse were then measured, and the slide viewing procedure then explained, using instructions similar to those used with patients. The experimenter entered an adjoining room and closed the door so that the participant was in the room by her/himself. From the adjoining room, the researcher presented the slides by pushing a button that activated the slide projector and timer. Ten slides were used as stimuli: two slides from each of five categories. Eight of the slides--unusual, scenic, unpleasant, and sexual--had been used previously (Buck et al., 1972; 1978). Five of these slides were identical to those viewed by the schizophrenia participants (B2, B3, D10, E1, and E4). In addition, there were two familiar slides showing the experimenter (M. S.) created specifically for this study. The unpleasant slide D12 was replaced by an image of a man with a mutilated face (D2), and there were two slides with sexual content. These included the back-lit silhouettes of a naked male and female embracing in a hallway (A2) and a slide depicting a topless woman with men watching her (A1). These latter three slides had been deemed inappropriate for use with psychiatric patients. Data for the sexual slides were not considered in analyses of the present study. Inspection indicated that data for D2 were comparable those for D12, so they were included in the present analyses. As before, two orders of slide presentation were chosen based on a randomized Latin Square design. In the Order1 the slides were presented as follows: E1; B2; D10; experimenter 1; A2; B3; D2; A1; experimenter 2; and E4. Order 2 was B2; experimenter 1; A2; E1; D10; E4; A1; D2; experimenter 2; and B3. Thus, each participant viewed two slides from the five slide categories (familiar, unusual, scenic, unpleasant, and sexual) for a total of ten slides. As described previously, each slide was presented to the participant for ten seconds. A red light was then illuminated and the participant then described his/her emotional responses for ten seconds. After the slide, the participant rated his/her feelings on the same scales used previously, indicating on a one to seven range how happy, sad, afraid, angry, surprised, and disgusted and pleasant/unpleasant he/she felt in reaction to the each of the slides. As before, for each of the self-report scales were illustrated by drawings of the corresponding facial expression. After the slide viewing procedure was completed blood pressure and heart rate were again assessed. Each participant was then informed that his/her image was recorded during the experiment and asked to sign the reconsent form. One of the sixty-eight participants expressed discomfort about having the recordings used for research, so that 3 The results of these scale data, and the physiological measures, are not considered in the present study.

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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background image
Page 10
Comparison Group
Sending Sessions
Instruments and Procedures. The study utilized the same slide viewing procedures
and equipment described previously (see Sheehan, 2002). Participants were scheduled
individually in one-hour time blocks. When the participant arrived he/she was asked to
read and sign an informed consent form stating in part that the participant’s image might
be recorded at some point during the study. After signing, the participant completed
scales assessing rational and experiential thinking, and extraversion, along with
demographic questions (age, gender, Grade Point Average).
3
The participant was then
instructed to sit in front of the back-lighted slide projector and the black box containing
the miniature hidden camera, signal light, and timing device described previously. The
slide viewing equipment was placed on a large table and the participant was seated 2.5
feet from the table. The participant’s blood pressure and pulse were then measured, and
the slide viewing procedure then explained, using instructions similar to those used with
patients. The experimenter entered an adjoining room and closed the door so that the
participant was in the room by her/himself. From the adjoining room, the researcher
presented the slides by pushing a button that activated the slide projector and timer.
Ten slides were used as stimuli: two slides from each of five categories. Eight of the
slides--unusual, scenic, unpleasant, and sexual--had been used previously (Buck et al.,
1972; 1978). Five of these slides were identical to those viewed by the schizophrenia
participants (B2, B3, D10, E1, and E4). In addition, there were two familiar slides
showing the experimenter (M. S.) created specifically for this study. The unpleasant slide
D12 was replaced by an image of a man with a mutilated face (D2), and there were two
slides with sexual content. These included the back-lit silhouettes of a naked male and
female embracing in a hallway (A2) and a slide depicting a topless woman with men
watching her (A1). These latter three slides had been deemed inappropriate for use with
psychiatric patients. Data for the sexual slides were not considered in analyses of the
present study. Inspection indicated that data for D2 were comparable those for D12, so
they were included in the present analyses. As before, two orders of slide presentation
were chosen based on a randomized Latin Square design. In the Order1 the slides were
presented as follows: E1; B2; D10; experimenter 1; A2; B3; D2; A1; experimenter 2; and
E4. Order 2 was B2; experimenter 1; A2; E1; D10; E4; A1; D2; experimenter 2; and B3.
Thus, each participant viewed two slides from the five slide categories (familiar,
unusual, scenic, unpleasant, and sexual) for a total of ten slides. As described previously,
each slide was presented to the participant for ten seconds. A red light was then
illuminated and the participant then described his/her emotional responses for ten
seconds. After the slide, the participant rated his/her feelings on the same scales used
previously, indicating on a one to seven range how happy, sad, afraid, angry, surprised,
and disgusted and pleasant/unpleasant he/she felt in reaction to the each of the slides. As
before, for each of the self-report scales were illustrated by drawings of the
corresponding facial expression.
After the slide viewing procedure was completed blood pressure and heart rate were
again assessed. Each participant was then informed that his/her image was recorded
during the experiment and asked to sign the reconsent form. One of the sixty-eight
participants expressed discomfort about having the recordings used for research, so that
3
The results of these scale data, and the physiological measures, are not considered in the present study.


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