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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 11 participant’s portion of the videotape was erased and the video release form was returned. An additional sender was eliminated because the participant had leaned into the hidden camera and the recorded image was blurry and out of frame so that sixty-six of the sender videotapes were usable. As in the study with patients, these were edited from SVHS to VHS to create the stimuli for the receiving component of the study. The videotape from senders one through six was used to create the first receiving tape, senders seven through twelve were used for the second tape, etc. for the subsequent sessions. Eleven separate videotapes were created in all with six senders per tape. There were ten video clips of each of the six senders for a total of sixty clips per tape. Receiving Sessions Participants and procedures. Undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut were recruited for the receiving component of the study. Attendance at the eleven one-hour viewing sessions ranged from thirteen to twenty judges. Procedures were similar to those described previously: upon arrival, judges were asked to complete an informed consent form, were shown the same ten slides that the senders had viewed, and the experiment and procedures were explained (using the same instructions given previously). Judges were instructed to try to determine what type of slide the sender was viewing and what emotions the sender was feeling while watching each slide. Specific Emotion and Communication Measures Measures of the senders' self-reported experiences, expressive response to slides, and spontaneous communication accuracy scores emotion correlation were computed in the comparison sample as described previously. Dependent Variables: d Statistics and Effect Sizes The magnitude of the differences between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples are reported in terms of d statistics and effect sizes. These should reflect directly the degree to which the behavior of the Schizophrenia participants is “inappropriate,” or different from Comparison participants, no matter the direction of the difference. For example, it may be that schizophrenia participants have more negative reactions to positive slides and positive reactions to negative slides than comparison participants (Easton, 1995). Such differences may cancel each other out, but are preserved in dstatistics and effect sizes. The d statistic is computed as: d = t x sqrt (1/n1 + 1/n2). It is translatable directly into effect sizes as: Effect size = d / sqrt (d 2 + 4). Generally, a d of .3 is considered to be small, .5 is considered moderate, and .8 large (Cohen, 1988). Results Reliability of Receiver Emotion Ratings of Schizophrenia Patients. Reliabilities were computed by determining coefficient alpha for each of the seven emotions for each of the nine receiving groups, and averaging across groups. The mean coefficient alphas were as follows: Happy = .95; Sad = .81; Fear = .61; Anger = .75; Surprise = .84; Disgust = .81; and Pleasant-Unpleasant = .91.

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 11
participant’s portion of the videotape was erased and the video release form was returned.
An additional sender was eliminated because the participant had leaned into the hidden
camera and the recorded image was blurry and out of frame so that sixty-six of the sender
videotapes were usable. As in the study with patients, these were edited from SVHS to
VHS to create the stimuli for the receiving component of the study. The videotape from
senders one through six was used to create the first receiving tape, senders seven through
twelve were used for the second tape, etc. for the subsequent sessions. Eleven separate
videotapes were created in all with six senders per tape. There were ten video clips of
each of the six senders for a total of sixty clips per tape.
Receiving Sessions
Participants and procedures. Undergraduate students from the University of
Connecticut were recruited for the receiving component of the study. Attendance at the
eleven one-hour viewing sessions ranged from thirteen to twenty judges. Procedures
were similar to those described previously: upon arrival, judges were asked to complete
an informed consent form, were shown the same ten slides that the senders had viewed,
and the experiment and procedures were explained (using the same instructions given
previously). Judges were instructed to try to determine what type of slide the sender was
viewing and what emotions the sender was feeling while watching each slide.

Specific Emotion and Communication Measures
Measures of the senders' self-reported experiences, expressive response to slides, and
spontaneous communication accuracy scores emotion correlation were computed in the
comparison sample as described previously.

Dependent Variables: d Statistics and Effect Sizes
The magnitude of the differences between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples
are reported in terms of d statistics and effect sizes. These should reflect directly the
degree to which the behavior of the Schizophrenia participants is “inappropriate,” or
different from Comparison participants, no matter the direction of the difference. For
example, it may be that schizophrenia participants have more negative reactions to
positive slides and positive reactions to negative slides than comparison participants
(Easton, 1995). Such differences may cancel each other out, but are preserved in d
statistics and effect sizes.
The
d statistic is computed as: d = t x sqrt (1/n1 + 1/n2). It is translatable directly into
effect sizes as: Effect size = d / sqrt (d
2
+ 4).
Generally, a d of .3 is considered to be
small, .5 is considered moderate, and .8 large (Cohen, 1988).
Results

Reliability of Receiver Emotion Ratings of Schizophrenia Patients.
Reliabilities were computed by determining coefficient alpha for each of the seven
emotions for each of the nine receiving groups, and averaging across groups. The mean
coefficient alphas were as follows: Happy = .95; Sad = .81; Fear = .61; Anger = .75;
Surprise = .84; Disgust = .81; and Pleasant-Unpleasant = .91.


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