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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 12 Schizophrenia versus Comparison Samples. Analysis of the data for the Comparison sample revealed large differences between female and male senders, with women being higher in sending accuracy, replicating previous findings with American college students (Sheehan, 2002). Since most of the Schizophrenia patient participants were male, comparisons with the entire Schizophrenia and Comparison samples may be misleading. Therefore, in addition to comparisons of the entire samples, comparisons only of male Schizophrenia and Comparison participants are presented as well. Table 1 gives the mean self ratings and observer ratings of Schizophrenia and Comparison males for each of the seven specific emotions for the five slide categories. Results for the Familiar-Self slide are given for Schizophrenia males only, as the Comparison group did not view a picture of themselves. For the Scenic, Unpleasant, and Unusual slide categories, results for two slides were combined in the analysis. -----Table 1----- Self-rated emotional experience. Overall, there were small to moderate differences between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples in self-rated emotional experience (Mean d = 0.36; effect size = .18). Across all the slides, self-ratings of the two samples differed considerably with surprise (Mean d = .62); moderately with disgust (Mean d =.46), anger (Mean d = .38), fear (Mean d = .37), and happiness (Mean d = .37); and only slightly with sadness (Mean d = .19) and pleasantness-unpleasantness and (Mean d =.13). On the Familiar Experimenter slide, Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as considerably more surprised, and moderately more afraid, angry, and disgusted and less happy, contrasted with Comparison participants (Mean d = .48). On Scenic slides Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as considerably more surprised, angry and disgusted, and moderately more afraid and less happy (Mean d = .47). On Unpleasantslides, Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, but otherwise rated themselves similarly to Comparison participants (Mean d = .23). On Unusual slides, Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more disgusted and pleasant (Mean d =.25). Considering only male participants, there was somewhat less difference overall between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples in self-rated emotional experience (Mean d = 0.32; effect size = .16). Across the slides, self-ratings of Schizophrenia and Comparison males differed moderately with surprise (Mean d = .44); slightly to moderately with fear (Mean d = .34), happiness (Mean d = .32), disgust (Mean d = .31), anger (Mean d = .31), and pleasantness-unpleasantness (Mean d = .29); and only slightly with sadness (Mean d = .19). Table 1 shows that on the Familiar Experimenter slide, male Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, and moderately more afraid, angry, and less happy, contrasted with Comparison males (Mean d = .35). On Scenic slides there were no statistically significant differences between the self-ratings of Schizophrenia and Comparison males (Mean d = .32). On Unpleasant slides, male Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, but otherwise were similar to Comparison males (Mean d = .27). On Unusual slides, male Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more pleasant and slightly less afraid (Mean d = .26). The mean d statistics are converted to effect sizes in Table 1.

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 12
Schizophrenia versus Comparison Samples.
Analysis of the data for the Comparison sample revealed large differences between
female and male senders, with women being higher in sending accuracy, replicating
previous findings with American college students (Sheehan, 2002). Since most of the
Schizophrenia patient participants were male, comparisons with the entire Schizophrenia
and Comparison samples may be misleading. Therefore, in addition to comparisons of
the entire samples, comparisons only of male Schizophrenia and Comparison participants
are presented as well.
Table 1 gives the mean self ratings and observer ratings of Schizophrenia and
Comparison males for each of the seven specific emotions for the five slide categories.
Results for the Familiar-Self slide are given for Schizophrenia males only, as the
Comparison group did not view a picture of themselves. For the Scenic, Unpleasant, and
Unusual slide categories, results for two slides were combined in the analysis.
-----Table 1-----
Self-rated emotional experience. Overall, there were small to moderate differences
between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples in self-rated emotional experience
(Mean d = 0.36; effect size = .18). Across all the slides, self-ratings of the two samples
differed considerably with surprise (Mean d = .62); moderately with disgust (Mean d =
.46), anger (Mean d = .38), fear (Mean d = .37), and happiness (Mean d = .37); and only
slightly with sadness (Mean d = .19) and pleasantness-unpleasantness and (Mean d =
.13). On the Familiar Experimenter slide, Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as
considerably more surprised, and moderately more afraid, angry, and disgusted and less
happy, contrasted with Comparison participants (Mean d = .48). On Scenic slides
Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as considerably more surprised, angry and
disgusted, and moderately more afraid and less happy (Mean d = .47). On Unpleasant
slides, Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, but otherwise rated
themselves similarly to Comparison participants (Mean d = .23). On Unusual slides,
Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more disgusted and pleasant (Mean d =
.25).
Considering only male participants, there was somewhat less difference overall
between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples in self-rated emotional experience
(Mean d = 0.32; effect size = .16). Across the slides, self-ratings of Schizophrenia and
Comparison males differed moderately with surprise (Mean d = .44); slightly to
moderately with fear (Mean d = .34), happiness (Mean d = .32), disgust (Mean d = .31),
anger (Mean d = .31), and pleasantness-unpleasantness (Mean d = .29); and only slightly
with sadness (Mean d = .19). Table 1 shows that on the Familiar Experimenter slide,
male Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, and moderately
more afraid, angry, and less happy, contrasted with Comparison males (Mean d = .35).
On Scenic slides there were no statistically significant differences between the self-
ratings of Schizophrenia and Comparison males (Mean d = .32). On Unpleasant slides,
male Schizophrenia participants rated themselves as more surprised, but otherwise were
similar to Comparison males (Mean d = .27). On Unusual slides, male Schizophrenia
participants rated themselves as more pleasant and slightly less afraid (Mean d = .26).
The mean d statistics are converted to effect sizes in Table 1.


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