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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 14 observer’s ratings were markedly higher for Comparison than Schizophrenia participants for fear (Mean d = .1.76), sadness (Mean d = .1.03), happiness (Mean d = .96), disgust (Mean d = .91), pleasantness (Mean d = .79); and moderately higher for surprise (Mean d= .53), and anger (Mean d = .52). Considering only male participants, relatively strong differences in communication accuracy remained (Mean d = 0.73; effect size = .34). Communication accuracy was markedly higher for Comparison than Schizophrenia participants for fear (Mean d = 1.44), and disgust (Mean d = 1.09); moderately to strongly higher for sadness (Mean d = .72), anger (Mean d = .63), and happiness (Mean d= .64); and moderately higher for pleasantness (Mean d = .47). For the communication of surprise, the difference between Schizophrenia and Comparison males was not significant (Mean d = .12). -----Table 2----- Communication accuracy data are also presented in Figure 1, broken down by gender of participants. It can be seen that women in the Comparison sample were better senders than men overall (p < .001), with significant gender differences in the sending of specific emotions of happiness (p < .028), surprise (p < .001), disgust (p < .016), and pleasantness (p < .013). There were no significant differences between males and females in the Schizophrenia sample, and Figure 1 reveals no apparent trends, although as noted previously, with only 5 females in the Schizophrenia sample, these data cannot be taken to be conclusive in any sense. -----Figure 1----- Conclusions. In conclusion, the data reveal relatively minor differences between self-rated feelings of schizophrenia and Comparison participants. Schizophrenia patients were seen by others to be somewhat less appropriate in expressing their feelings, but these effects were moderate. However, there were large differences between Schizophrenia and Comparison samples in communicating specific emotions: particularly fear and disgust, and including sadness, anger, happiness, and pleasant-unpleasantness as well. The relative magnitude of the differences between the Schizophrenia and Comparison males in self-rated emotion, observer-rated emotion, and communication accuracy is graphically illustrated in Figure 2. It shows that differences in self-ratings were consistently low to moderate across specific emotions; differences in observer ratings were consistently moderate across specific emotions, and differences in emotional communication were generally high, with important differences manifested in the communication of specific emotions. -----Figure 2-----

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 14
observer’s ratings were markedly higher for Comparison than Schizophrenia participants
for fear (Mean d = .1.76), sadness (Mean d = .1.03), happiness (Mean d = .96), disgust
(Mean d = .91), pleasantness (Mean d = .79); and moderately higher for surprise (Mean d
= .53), and anger (Mean d = .52). Considering only male participants, relatively strong
differences in communication accuracy remained (Mean d = 0.73; effect size = .34).
Communication accuracy was markedly higher for Comparison than Schizophrenia
participants for fear (Mean d = 1.44), and disgust (Mean d = 1.09); moderately to
strongly higher for sadness (Mean d = .72), anger (Mean d = .63), and happiness (Mean d
= .64); and moderately higher for pleasantness (Mean d = .47). For the communication
of surprise, the difference between Schizophrenia and Comparison males was not
significant (Mean d = .12).
-----Table 2-----
Communication accuracy data are also presented in Figure 1, broken down by gender
of participants. It can be seen that women in the Comparison sample were better senders
than men overall (p < .001), with significant gender differences in the sending of specific
emotions of happiness (p < .028), surprise (p < .001), disgust (p < .016), and pleasantness
(p < .013). There were no significant differences between males and females in the
Schizophrenia sample, and Figure 1 reveals no apparent trends, although as noted
previously, with only 5 females in the Schizophrenia sample, these data cannot be taken
to be conclusive in any sense.
-----Figure 1-----

Conclusions.
In conclusion, the data reveal relatively minor differences between self-rated feelings
of schizophrenia and Comparison participants. Schizophrenia patients were seen by
others to be somewhat less appropriate in expressing their feelings, but these effects were
moderate. However, there were large differences between Schizophrenia and
Comparison samples in communicating specific emotions: particularly fear and disgust,
and including sadness, anger, happiness, and pleasant-unpleasantness as well.
The relative magnitude of the differences between the Schizophrenia and Comparison
males in self-rated emotion, observer-rated emotion, and communication accuracy is
graphically illustrated in Figure 2. It shows that differences in self-ratings were
consistently low to moderate across specific emotions; differences in observer ratings
were consistently moderate across specific emotions, and differences in emotional
communication were generally high, with important differences manifested in the
communication of specific emotions.
-----Figure 2-----


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