All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 4 Cultural differences in EE effects. On the other hand, there are aspects of EE that are poorly understood. For example, there is evidence that EE may have different significance in different cultures (see Jenkins and Karno, 1992). A study of British Pakistani (Muslim) and Sikh families did not find EE levels to predict schizophrenia relapse. Rather, high levels of EE, and especially emotional overinvolvement, appeared to be the norm in Pakistani Muslim families (Hashemi & Cochrane, 1999). In contrast, a study of Japanese families found fewer critical comments than were found in comparable American and European families (Mino, Inoue, Shimodera, & Tanaka, 2000); and another study found a lower prevalence of EE in Bali as compared with Tokyo (Kurihara, Kato, Tsukahara, Takano, & Reverger, 2000). There is also controversy about the causal relationship between EE and severity of schizophrenia. It may be that interactions with schizophrenia patients may encourage EE on the part of others (King, 2000). Developmental-Interactionist theory, in company with the reasoning associated with the DB, suggests that the critically schizophrenogenic agent of stress may not be not hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement per se, but rather their detrimental effects upon emotional communication, which may well vary with culture. What is experienced as stressful EE in one culture may be an expected and appreciated sign of attention, love and affection in another; actually enhancing emotional communication and the growth of intimate and stress-buffering personal relationships. If the critical variable in EE effects indeed is communication, studies of emotional communication may cast a new light on the issue of the nature of environmental stress in schizophrenia, potentially affording opportunities to conceptualize and understand interactive effects of emotional communication upon the biological concomitants of schizophrenia. This suggests in turn that there is a need to develop objective and standardized measures of emotional experience, expression and communication in schizophrenia, which could be used to determine just what it is that is “inappropriate” in the responses of these persons. Studying Emotional Experience, Expression, and Communication in Schizophrenia Emotional experience in schizophrenia. Emotional responding has arousal, expressive, and experiential components that can be dissociated (Buck, 1988; 1999), but relatively few studies have examined the patterning of these aspects of emotion in schizophrenia. Some have argued that negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with impairments in the ability to experience emotion, which in turn leads to flat affect and emotional withdrawal (Limpert & Amador, 2001). However, recent evidence suggests that the apparent deficits in emotional experience among schizophrenia patients may be illusory. Earnst and Kring (1999) found that although deficit patients were less expressive than non-deficit patients and controls when viewing emotional films, they did not report experiencing less emotion. Also, schizophrenia patients with flat affect were found to describe happy and sad experiences with less prosodic inflection and fluency, but they used the same number of words describing pleasure and distress (Alpert, Rosenberg, Pouget, & Shaw, 2000). In fact, some suggest that the subjective experience of emotion in schizophrenia may actually be heightened, and that low expression of emotion may at times be used by some patients as a defense against uncontrolled emotional experience (Hufnaegel, Steimer-Krause, & Krause 1991). The slide-viewing technique. The slide-viewing technique (SVT) developed out of the cooperative conditioning procedure created by Robert E. Miller to study the

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
first   previous   Page 4 of 24   next   last



background image
Page 4
Cultural differences in EE effects. On the other hand, there are aspects of EE that are
poorly understood. For example, there is evidence that EE may have different
significance in different cultures (see Jenkins and Karno, 1992). A study of British
Pakistani (Muslim) and Sikh families did not find EE levels to predict schizophrenia
relapse. Rather, high levels of EE, and especially emotional overinvolvement, appeared
to be the norm in Pakistani Muslim families (Hashemi & Cochrane, 1999). In contrast, a
study of Japanese families found fewer critical comments than were found in comparable
American and European families (Mino, Inoue, Shimodera, & Tanaka, 2000); and
another study found a lower prevalence of EE in Bali as compared with Tokyo (Kurihara,
Kato, Tsukahara, Takano, & Reverger, 2000). There is also controversy about the causal
relationship between EE and severity of schizophrenia. It may be that interactions with
schizophrenia patients may encourage EE on the part of others (King, 2000).
Developmental-Interactionist theory, in company with the reasoning associated with
the DB, suggests that the critically schizophrenogenic agent of stress may not be not
hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement per se, but rather their detrimental
effects upon emotional communication, which may well vary with culture. What is
experienced as stressful EE in one culture may be an expected and appreciated sign of
attention, love and affection in another; actually enhancing emotional communication and
the growth of intimate and stress-buffering personal relationships. If the critical variable
in EE effects indeed is communication, studies of emotional communication may cast a
new light on the issue of the nature of environmental stress in schizophrenia, potentially
affording opportunities to conceptualize and understand interactive effects of emotional
communication upon the biological concomitants of schizophrenia. This suggests in turn
that there is a need to develop objective and standardized measures of emotional
experience, expression and communication in schizophrenia, which could be used to
determine just what it is that is “inappropriate” in the responses of these persons.

Studying Emotional Experience, Expression, and Communication in Schizophrenia
Emotional experience in schizophrenia. Emotional responding has arousal,
expressive, and experiential components that can be dissociated (Buck, 1988; 1999), but
relatively few studies have examined the patterning of these aspects of emotion in
schizophrenia. Some have argued that negative symptoms in schizophrenia are
associated with impairments in the ability to experience emotion, which in turn leads to
flat affect and emotional withdrawal (Limpert & Amador, 2001). However, recent
evidence suggests that the apparent deficits in emotional experience among schizophrenia
patients may be illusory. Earnst and Kring (1999) found that although deficit patients
were less expressive than non-deficit patients and controls when viewing emotional films,
they did not report experiencing less emotion. Also, schizophrenia patients with flat
affect were found to describe happy and sad experiences with less prosodic inflection and
fluency, but they used the same number of words describing pleasure and distress
(Alpert, Rosenberg, Pouget, & Shaw, 2000). In fact, some suggest that the subjective
experience of emotion in schizophrenia may actually be heightened, and that low
expression of emotion may at times be used by some patients as a defense against
uncontrolled emotional experience (Hufnaegel, Steimer-Krause, & Krause 1991).
The slide-viewing technique. The slide-viewing technique (SVT) developed out of
the cooperative conditioning procedure created by Robert E. Miller to study the


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 4 of 24   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.