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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 6 Methods Emotional experience, expression, and spontaneous facial/gestural communication accuracy was assessed in 50 schizophrenia patients and a standardization sample of 68 comparison senders, who were healthy university undergraduates. Sending accuracy scores were based upon the judgments of a total of 288 receivers who were undergraduate students. Schizophrenia Group Participants Sending. 50 schizophrenia patients participated as senders in this study. Inclusion criteria were that patients had diagnostic criteria that met DSM III-R (SCID) criteria for chronic schizophrenia, had active symptoms, were medication stabilized, and were competent to give informed consent based upon the Mini Mental Status (MMSE) examination (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975). Exclusion criteria were that patients were not younger than the age of 18, were not diagnosed with neurological damage/impairment, and did not manifest active aggressive behavior tendencies. Twenty-eight participants (1 female, 27 male) were patients receiving care at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Newington, CT. 1 The mean ages was 45.6 years (SD = 9.15). Twenty two participants (5 female, 17 male) were patients recruited from the Southeast Human Service Center in Fargo, ND. The mean age was 40.6 years (SD =6.98). The Connecticut sample was older (t[47] = 2.08, p = .043). The Connecticut and North Dakota samples did not differ with regard to education, antipsychotic medication, depression medication, or type of schizophrenia. The levels of emotional expression and communication of schizophrenia patients were compared with those of a standardization sample consisting of 68 healthy undergraduate students (35 females, 33 males). Their ages ranged from 19 to 50 (M =21.48, SD = 3.72). They were offered extra course credit in exchange for their participation in research. All senders consented to being videotaped as a part of testing, and all signed a reconsent form specifically allowing the use of his or her videotaped expressions at the completion of testing. Receiving. Emotion rating and communication scores were based on judgments of undergraduate receivers, or judges. 121 (67 females, 40 males, 14 undetermined) rated the responses of schizophrenia participants, and 167 (105 females, 58 males, four undetermined) rated the responses of comparison senders. The videotaped expressions of senders were rated by groups of judges ranging in size from 11 to 15 persons, each with 1 Patients were screened by Laurence Schweitzer, M. D., for suitability and solicited by him for participation in the project. Neera Gupta, M. D., G. Singh, M. D., Lois Mantel, A.P.R.N., Carolyn Palmucci, R.N., and Eileen Widger, A.P.R.N. assisted Dr. Schweitzer in screening and soliciting patients. A total of 39 patients were approached to participate: ten of these gave consent but were not tested. Four left the hospital before completing testing; two failed to keep appointments; two proved too aggressive; one was dropped when history revealed dementia; and one was dropped at a relative’s request. One patient was approached but did not give consent.

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 6
Methods
Emotional experience, expression, and spontaneous facial/gestural communication
accuracy was assessed in 50 schizophrenia patients and a standardization sample of 68
comparison senders, who were healthy university undergraduates. Sending accuracy
scores were based upon the judgments of a total of 288 receivers who were undergraduate
students.
Schizophrenia Group
Participants
Sending. 50 schizophrenia patients participated as senders in this study. Inclusion
criteria were that patients had diagnostic criteria that met DSM III-R (SCID) criteria for
chronic schizophrenia, had active symptoms, were medication stabilized, and were
competent to give informed consent based upon the Mini Mental Status (MMSE)
examination (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975). Exclusion criteria were that patients
were not younger than the age of 18, were not diagnosed with neurological
damage/impairment, and did not manifest active aggressive behavior tendencies.
Twenty-eight participants (1 female, 27 male) were patients receiving care at the
Veterans Administration Hospital in Newington, CT.
1
The mean ages was 45.6 years
(SD = 9.15). Twenty two participants (5 female, 17 male) were patients recruited from
the Southeast Human Service Center in Fargo, ND. The mean age was 40.6 years (SD =
6.98). The Connecticut sample was older (t[47] = 2.08, p = .043). The Connecticut and
North Dakota samples did not differ with regard to education, antipsychotic medication,
depression medication, or type of schizophrenia.
The levels of emotional expression and communication of schizophrenia patients
were compared with those of a standardization sample consisting of 68 healthy
undergraduate students (35 females, 33 males). Their ages ranged from 19 to 50 (M =
21.48, SD = 3.72). They were offered extra course credit in exchange for their
participation in research.
All senders consented to being videotaped as a part of testing, and all signed a
reconsent form specifically allowing the use of his or her videotaped expressions at the
completion of testing.
Receiving. Emotion rating and communication scores were based on judgments of
undergraduate receivers, or judges. 121 (67 females, 40 males, 14 undetermined) rated
the responses of schizophrenia participants, and 167 (105 females, 58 males, four
undetermined) rated the responses of comparison senders. The videotaped expressions of
senders were rated by groups of judges ranging in size from 11 to 15 persons, each with
1
Patients were screened by Laurence Schweitzer, M. D., for suitability and solicited by him for
participation in the project. Neera Gupta, M. D., G. Singh, M. D., Lois Mantel, A.P.R.N., Carolyn
Palmucci, R.N., and Eileen Widger, A.P.R.N. assisted Dr. Schweitzer in screening and soliciting patients.
A total of 39 patients were approached to participate: ten of these gave consent but were not tested. Four
left the hospital before completing testing; two failed to keep appointments; two proved too aggressive; one
was dropped when history revealed dementia; and one was dropped at a relative’s request. One patient was
approached but did not give consent.


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