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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 8 clipboard. Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust were rated on a scale of 1 = not at all to 7 = very, on a scale illustrated by a neutral face on the left and a drawn face expressing the appropriate emotion on the right. Then participants gave an overall rating of how unpleasant to pleasant they found the slide, where 1 = very unpleasant to 7 = very pleasant: these were illustrated by faces showing a negative emotion blend on the left and a positive blend on the right. Participants viewed eight slides in four categories, six of which were coded after a published replication guide (Buck, 1978). Scenic slides included an image of a lake at sunset (code B2) and an image depicting an autumn scene (B3). Unpleasant slides included pictures of a starving child (D10) and a wounded child (D12). Unusual slides included an image created with a time exposure in a moving car moving past lights at night (E1) and an image of a time exposure showing a spiral shape from a carnival (E4). Also included were two Familiar People slides showing the participant him/herself, and the experimenter. Slides were presented in one of two orders, A or B, chosen by randomly selected Latin Squares. Orders A and B were alternated so consecutive participants did not view slides in the same order. Order A was E4; participant; B3; D10; B2; D12; experimenter; E1. Order B was B3; participant; D10; E4; D12; B2; E1; experimenter. Participants viewed slides on a Kodak Carousel Ektagraphic 570AF self-contained slide projector and backlit projection screen. Other equipment used included a Panasonic AG1960 Proline SVHS videocassette recorder on which subject’s expressions and descriptions of their feelings while viewing slides were recorded, and a 3/4" Panasonic KS102 SVHS camera and solid-state timing device concealed in the box described previously. Re-consent and debriefing. After the study was complete, all details of the videotaping procedure were fully revealed and participants were asked to sign a reconsent form allowing the use of the videotapes in rating sessions. They were told that they had completed all of the testing procedures. If allowed by hospital rules regarding patient status, (in other words, if they were outpatients) they were paid $20.00 for their time. Receiving Sessions Videotape editing. All videotapes taken at Fargo were sent to Connecticut for editing and analysis in receiving sessions together with the videotapes of Connecticut patients. The original SVHS videotapes taken during the slide-viewing task were edited onto VHS copies for compatibility with the video playback units used in receiving sessions. Editing was accomplished using a Panasonic PVS7670 SVHS player and a Panasonic AG-W1 VHS player. For each sender, the videotape number, start time, end time, slide order, and slide type were recorded. Since the original order of presentation for the slides had been randomized, the order of the original recordings was maintained in the receiving component of the study. The videotapes were shown with the volume turned off: judges could see the sender’s facial/gestural expressions but could not hear what he/she was saying regarding his/her feelings in reaction to the slide. Each videotape sequence began approximately 1 second before the slide was presented and ended just after the slide was removed. Each sequence was approximately 22 seconds long, and an eight-to-10-second period separated each sequence. The eight sequences for each sender lasted 4-5 minutes. The senders were gathered into nine edited

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 8
clipboard. Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust were rated on a scale of
1 = not at all to 7 = very, on a scale illustrated by a neutral face on the left and a drawn
face expressing the appropriate emotion on the right. Then participants gave an overall
rating of how unpleasant to pleasant they found the slide, where 1 = very unpleasant to 7
= very pleasant: these were illustrated by faces showing a negative emotion blend on the
left and a positive blend on the right.
Participants viewed eight slides in four categories, six of which were coded after a
published replication guide (Buck, 1978). Scenic slides included an image of a lake at
sunset (code B2) and an image depicting an autumn scene (B3). Unpleasant slides
included pictures of a starving child (D10) and a wounded child (D12). Unusual slides
included an image created with a time exposure in a moving car moving past lights at
night (E1) and an image of a time exposure showing a spiral shape from a carnival (E4).
Also included were two Familiar People slides showing the participant him/herself, and
the experimenter. Slides were presented in one of two orders, A or B, chosen by
randomly selected Latin Squares. Orders A and B were alternated so consecutive
participants did not view slides in the same order. Order A was E4; participant; B3; D10;
B2; D12; experimenter; E1. Order B was B3; participant; D10; E4; D12; B2; E1;
experimenter.
Participants viewed slides on a Kodak Carousel Ektagraphic 570AF self-contained
slide projector and backlit projection screen. Other equipment used included a Panasonic
AG1960 Proline SVHS videocassette recorder on which subject’s expressions and
descriptions of their feelings while viewing slides were recorded, and a 3/4" Panasonic
KS102 SVHS camera and solid-state timing device concealed in the box described
previously.
Re-consent and debriefing. After the study was complete, all details of the
videotaping procedure were fully revealed and participants were asked to sign a reconsent
form allowing the use of the videotapes in rating sessions. They were told that they had
completed all of the testing procedures. If allowed by hospital rules regarding patient
status, (in other words, if they were outpatients) they were paid $20.00 for their time.

Receiving Sessions
Videotape editing. All videotapes taken at Fargo were sent to Connecticut for editing
and analysis in receiving sessions together with the videotapes of Connecticut patients.
The original SVHS videotapes taken during the slide-viewing task were edited onto VHS
copies for compatibility with the video playback units used in receiving sessions. Editing
was accomplished using a Panasonic PVS7670 SVHS player and a Panasonic AG-W1
VHS player. For each sender, the videotape number, start time, end time, slide order, and
slide type were recorded. Since the original order of presentation for the slides had been
randomized, the order of the original recordings was maintained in the receiving
component of the study. The videotapes were shown with the volume turned off: judges
could see the sender’s facial/gestural expressions but could not hear what he/she was
saying regarding his/her feelings in reaction to the slide.
Each videotape sequence began approximately 1 second before the slide was
presented and ended just after the slide was removed. Each sequence was approximately
22 seconds long, and an eight-to-10-second period separated each sequence. The eight
sequences for each sender lasted 4-5 minutes. The senders were gathered into nine edited


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