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Expressed Emotion and the Double-Bind: Communication of Specific Emotions in Schizophrenia
Unformatted Document Text:  Page 9 videotapes for the purpose of presentation to groups of receivers. The first eight of these "sender videotapes" included nine senders, each showing nine senders: three repetitions of two participants and a hearing-impaired person who had been filmed in the slide-viewing procedure. 2 Each of these was 35-45 minutes in length. The ninth sender videotape presented five senders and was 25 minutes in length. Receiving sessions: Spontaneous sending. Communication sciences and psychology undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut served as judges viewing and rating the edited videotapes showing patients’ facial/gestural expressions while viewing the eight slides. Receiving sessions were held in the Communication Sciences Audience Response Laboratory, which was furnished to afford comfortable television viewing by groups of judges. Upon arrival, the study was explained briefly, although judges were not told that patient groups were involved. To introduce judges to the procedures of the slide-viewing task in an efficient and consistent way, videotaped instructions were presented. These included examples of the slides viewed by participants and gave full and accurate explanations and illustrations of all procedures. Judges were also given sheets on which the same instructions were written verbatim, and questions were encouraged. Each receiving session took 50-60 minutes. Judges assessed the emotion participants were feeling in reaction to the slides by completing a rating form for each participant watching each slide. For each videotape sequence, judges circled what type of slide (familiar person, scenic, unpleasant or unusual) the participant was viewing. Judges also rated how happy, sad, afraid, angry, surprised, and disgusted the participant felt while watching each slide on a scale of 1 = "not at all" to 7 = "very." Judges also rated how unpleasant or pleasant the participant felt while viewing each slide, where 1 = "very unpleasant" to 7 = "very pleasant." Each emotion-rating scale was illustrated by a facial expression identical to that given to participants for their original ratings. Specific Emotion and Communication Measures Sender's self-reported response to slides. Senders rated their emotional response for each of seven emotions--happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and pleasant-unpleasant—for each of the eight slides. Sender's expressive response to slides. Each sender's emotional expression was computed as the mean of the receivers' ratings of each of the seven emotions--happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and pleasant-unpleasant--for each of the eight slides. Spontaneous communication accuracy: Emotion correlation scores. The communication accuracy of each sender for each of the seven emotions was the Pearson correlation coefficient computed, across the eight slides, of the sender's self-report of each emotion and the mean receivers' rating of that emotion. This yielded a specific communication score for each emotion--happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and pleasant-unpleasant--for each sender. 2 Data for hearing-impaired persons will be considered in another paper.

Authors: Buck, Ross., Sheehan, Megan., Cartwright-Mills, Jacquie., Ray, Ipshita. and Ross, Elliott.
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Page 9
videotapes for the purpose of presentation to groups of receivers. The first eight of these
"sender videotapes" included nine senders, each showing nine senders: three repetitions
of two participants and a hearing-impaired person who had been filmed in the slide-
viewing procedure.
2
Each of these was 35-45 minutes in length. The ninth sender
videotape presented five senders and was 25 minutes in length.
Receiving sessions: Spontaneous sending. Communication sciences and psychology
undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut served as judges viewing and
rating the edited videotapes showing patients’ facial/gestural expressions while viewing
the eight slides. Receiving sessions were held in the Communication Sciences Audience
Response Laboratory, which was furnished to afford comfortable television viewing by
groups of judges.
Upon arrival, the study was explained briefly, although judges were not told that
patient groups were involved. To introduce judges to the procedures of the slide-viewing
task in an efficient and consistent way, videotaped instructions were presented. These
included examples of the slides viewed by participants and gave full and accurate
explanations and illustrations of all procedures. Judges were also given sheets on which
the same instructions were written verbatim, and questions were encouraged. Each
receiving session took 50-60 minutes.
Judges assessed the emotion participants were feeling in reaction to the slides by
completing a rating form for each participant watching each slide. For each videotape
sequence, judges circled what type of slide (familiar person, scenic, unpleasant or
unusual) the participant was viewing. Judges also rated how happy, sad, afraid, angry,
surprised, and disgusted the participant felt while watching each slide on a scale of 1 =
"not at all" to 7 = "very." Judges also rated how unpleasant or pleasant the participant
felt while viewing each slide, where 1 = "very unpleasant" to 7 = "very pleasant." Each
emotion-rating scale was illustrated by a facial expression identical to that given to
participants for their original ratings.

Specific Emotion and Communication Measures
Sender's self-reported response to slides. Senders rated their emotional response for
each of seven emotions--happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and pleasant-
unpleasant—for each of the eight slides.
Sender's expressive response to slides. Each sender's emotional expression was
computed as the mean of the receivers' ratings of each of the seven emotions--happiness,
sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and pleasant-unpleasant--for each of the eight
slides.
Spontaneous communication accuracy: Emotion correlation scores. The
communication accuracy of each sender for each of the seven emotions was the Pearson
correlation coefficient computed, across the eight slides, of the sender's self-report of
each emotion and the mean receivers' rating of that emotion. This yielded a specific
communication score for each emotion--happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust,
and pleasant-unpleasant--for each sender.
2
Data for hearing-impaired persons will be considered in another paper.


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