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Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Type of argument as a situational constraint
Unformatted Document Text:  Argumentativeness 10 discrimination based on sexual orientation; religious issues; gun control; drug testing; increased military spending; animal experimentation; surrogate mothering; increased restriction of foreign products; sports; movies; etiquette/manners; race discrimination; politics. Personal issue argument topics included the following: conflicts over romantic partners; how to spend leisure time together; other friends; how much time to spend together; household chores; roommate problems; one person’s hurt feelings; money/bills; trust and jealousy; showing consideration for friend; use of alcohol; space in apartment; broken plans; using each other’s possessions; giving advice; doing favors for each other. Items measuring argumentativeness were the twenty-item scale created by Infante and Rancer (1982) and the items measuring verbal aggressiveness were the twenty-item scale created by Infante and Wigley (1986). These scales have been utilized extensively and almost exclusively in the literature examining these two concepts (Infante & Rancer, 1996). The items were altered so that they referred to the particular public issue or personal issue argument episode reported by the participant. Possible ranges on each scale were from a minimum of 20 to a maximum of 100, and individuals answered each question on a five-point scale, in which 1=almost never true, 3=occasionally, and 5=almost always true. Reliabilities for the scales were for the public issue argument condition: argumentativeness ( =.90), verbal aggressiveness ( =.89); for the personal issue argument condition: argumentativeness ( =.82), verbal aggressiveness ( =.88). Results A two-way mixed ANOVA was utilized to test the first two hypotheses and the first research question. The two independent variables were type of argument, which was repeated, and sex of respondent. The dependent variable was level of argumentative behavior reported for

Authors: Johnson, Amy.
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Argumentativeness 10
discrimination based on sexual orientation; religious issues; gun control; drug testing; increased
military spending; animal experimentation; surrogate mothering; increased restriction of foreign
products; sports; movies; etiquette/manners; race discrimination; politics.
Personal issue argument topics included the following: conflicts over romantic partners; how to
spend leisure time together; other friends; how much time to spend together; household chores;
roommate problems; one person’s hurt feelings; money/bills; trust and jealousy; showing
consideration for friend; use of alcohol; space in apartment; broken plans; using each other’s
possessions; giving advice; doing favors for each other.
Items measuring argumentativeness were the twenty-item scale created by Infante and
Rancer (1982) and the items measuring verbal aggressiveness were the twenty-item scale created
by Infante and Wigley (1986). These scales have been utilized extensively and almost
exclusively in the literature examining these two concepts (Infante & Rancer, 1996). The items
were altered so that they referred to the particular public issue or personal issue argument
episode reported by the participant. Possible ranges on each scale were from a minimum of 20 to
a maximum of 100, and individuals answered each question on a five-point scale, in which
1=almost never true, 3=occasionally, and 5=almost always true. Reliabilities for the scales were
for the public issue argument condition: argumentativeness ( =.90), verbal aggressiveness
( =.89); for the personal issue argument condition: argumentativeness ( =.82), verbal
aggressiveness ( =.88).
Results
A two-way mixed ANOVA was utilized to test the first two hypotheses and the first
research question. The two independent variables were type of argument, which was repeated,
and sex of respondent. The dependent variable was level of argumentative behavior reported for


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