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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 10 degree of familiarity. As Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) argued, those situations of intercultural interaction may provide and enhance ICA. Little study has been concerned with ICA. Neuliep and Ryan (1998) investigated the relationship between ICA, socio-communicative orientation, and uncertainty during initial cross-cultural communication. They found that ICA was positively associated with uncertainty but negatively correlated with socio-communicative orientation. Based on multicultural or co-cultural communication differences in the U.S, Toale and McCroskey (2001) examined the influence of ethnocentrism on interethnic communication and the use of relational maintenance strategies. The findings of their study suggested that interethnic communication apprehension differs from general trait communication apprehension and ethnocentrism is a major barrier in performing relational maintenance strategies in interethnic communication. Conflict management styles Conflict, a pervasive human activity involving every aspect of life and thus inevitable, can be defined as “an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources and interference from others in achieving their goals” (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 41). Even when both parties agree on an issue, different interpretations of a problem or its potential solutions may generate conflict. When the original problem is not enough to resolve, conflicts over how to manage it can create secondary problems. And the consequences of mishandling conflicts are often messy and may lead to further disagreement (Wilmot and Hocker 2001). Conflict management styles or strategies are “patterned responses, or clusters of behavior, that people use in conflict” (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 130). Researchers

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
10
degree of familiarity. As Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) argued, those situations of
intercultural interaction may provide and enhance ICA.
Little study has been concerned with ICA. Neuliep and Ryan (1998) investigated
the relationship between ICA, socio-communicative orientation, and uncertainty during
initial cross-cultural communication. They found that ICA was positively associated with
uncertainty but negatively correlated with socio-communicative orientation. Based on
multicultural or co-cultural communication differences in the U.S, Toale and McCroskey
(2001) examined the influence of ethnocentrism on interethnic communication and the
use of relational maintenance strategies. The findings of their study suggested that
interethnic communication apprehension differs from general trait communication
apprehension and ethnocentrism is a major barrier in performing relational maintenance
strategies in interethnic communication.
Conflict management styles
Conflict, a pervasive human activity involving every aspect of life and thus
inevitable, can be defined as “an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent
parties who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources and interference from others in
achieving their goals” (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 41). Even when both parties agree on
an issue, different interpretations of a problem or its potential solutions may generate
conflict. When the original problem is not enough to resolve, conflicts over how to
manage it can create secondary problems. And the consequences of mishandling conflicts
are often messy and may lead to further disagreement (Wilmot and Hocker 2001).
Conflict management styles or strategies are “patterned responses, or clusters of
behavior, that people use in conflict” (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 130). Researchers


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