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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 12 Cross-cultural conflict management styles When we consider shared or similar values, beliefs, expectations, and behavioral dispositions within a culture and different, sometimes incompatible, even conflicting those between two or more different cultures, between-culture conflicts seem to be more difficult to manage than within-culture conflicts. Therefore, people involved in between- culture conflicts may have higher difficulty in attuning their standpoints or behaviors toward the other cultural parties. Of several cultural barriers, the strongest factor that influences the way people manage conflicts are cultural values by which people attempt to achieve and cultural expectations involving various conflict resolution strategies in achieving the values (Ohbuchi, Fukushima, and Tedeschi 1999). In this way, cultural dynamics form one of the bedrock concerns that lead to conflict. Conflicts occur between members of different cultures, and members of the same culture who feel that cultural rules are being violated (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 66). Culturally, for the U.S. harmony is achieved by explicit expression of individual feelings and emotions. Avoidance, valued in some other cultures, particularly for most Asian countries, may increase conflict in the U.S. (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 34). Recently, researches have focused on the influence of national culture on individuals’ conflict management styles. A number of studies have shown how different styles of conflict management are affected by culture (Elsayed-Ekhouly and Buda 1996; Gabrieldis, Stephan, Ybarra, Pearson, and Villareal 1997; Schneider, Fonzi, Tomada, and Tani 2000; Ting-Toomey 1997; Ting-Toomey and Oetzel 2001; Ting-Toomey et al. 2000). Cross-cultural conflict studies have shown that people in individualistic cultures prefer active, assertive, and confrontational styles, whereas people in collectivistic

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
12
Cross-cultural conflict management styles
When we consider shared or similar values, beliefs, expectations, and behavioral
dispositions within a culture and different, sometimes incompatible, even conflicting
those between two or more different cultures, between-culture conflicts seem to be more
difficult to manage than within-culture conflicts. Therefore, people involved in between-
culture conflicts may have higher difficulty in attuning their standpoints or behaviors
toward the other cultural parties. Of several cultural barriers, the strongest factor that
influences the way people manage conflicts are cultural values by which people attempt
to achieve and cultural expectations involving various conflict resolution strategies in
achieving the values (Ohbuchi, Fukushima, and Tedeschi 1999). In this way, cultural
dynamics form one of the bedrock concerns that lead to conflict. Conflicts occur between
members of different cultures, and members of the same culture who feel that cultural
rules are being violated (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 66). Culturally, for the U.S.
harmony is achieved by explicit expression of individual feelings and emotions.
Avoidance, valued in some other cultures, particularly for most Asian countries, may
increase conflict in the U.S. (Wilmot and Hocker 2001, p. 34).
Recently, researches have focused on the influence of national culture on
individuals’ conflict management styles. A number of studies have shown how different
styles of conflict management are affected by culture (Elsayed-Ekhouly and Buda 1996;
Gabrieldis, Stephan, Ybarra, Pearson, and Villareal 1997; Schneider, Fonzi, Tomada, and
Tani 2000; Ting-Toomey 1997; Ting-Toomey and Oetzel 2001; Ting-Toomey et al.
2000). Cross-cultural conflict studies have shown that people in individualistic cultures
prefer active, assertive, and confrontational styles, whereas people in collectivistic


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