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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 14 scales to measure participants’ diverse intercultural conflict resolution strategies. To specify an intercultural conflict situation, the directions of PRICA and ICMS questionnaires emphasized a communicative situation of intercultural conflict. For example, in the PRICA scale questionnaire the direction showed that “This instrument is composed of 14 statements concerning your feelings about communication with a person or people from other cultures.” In the ICMS scale questionnaire the direction indicated that “Think of a context or situation where you have a conflict, disagreement, argument, or disappointment with a person or people from different culture.” After reading the directions first, each participant was asked to complete a PRICA and ICMS questionnaire. The PRICA scale possesses high content, construct and discriminate validities (Neuliep and McCroskey 1997) and the ICMS scale was also reported to have high convergent and discriminate validities (Rahim and Magner 1995). Measurement The PRICA scale consists of 14 statements and each item is measured with 5- point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). Fourteen statements of the PRICA consist of 7 negative and 7 positive items involving the levels of individuals’ communication apprehension when interacting with a person or people from different culture. Therefore, this study considered that higher scores in the sum of the 7 positive items subtracted from the sum of the 7 negative items reflect lower levels of ICA. The high and low levels of ICA of each participant were determined by using cut-offs of one standard deviation. With the criterion of the sample mean, then, while the participants whose scores were one standard deviation above from the sample mean were considered people with low communication apprehension, the participants whose scores were one

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
14
scales to measure participants’ diverse intercultural conflict resolution strategies. To
specify an intercultural conflict situation, the directions of PRICA and ICMS
questionnaires emphasized a communicative situation of intercultural conflict. For
example, in the PRICA scale questionnaire the direction showed that “This instrument is
composed of 14 statements concerning your feelings about communication with a person
or people from other cultures.” In the ICMS scale questionnaire the direction indicated
that “Think of a context or situation where you have a conflict, disagreement, argument,
or disappointment with a person or people from different culture.” After reading the
directions first, each participant was asked to complete a PRICA and ICMS
questionnaire. The PRICA scale possesses high content, construct and discriminate
validities (Neuliep and McCroskey 1997) and the ICMS scale was also reported to have
high convergent and discriminate validities (Rahim and Magner 1995).
Measurement
The PRICA scale consists of 14 statements and each item is measured with 5-
point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). Fourteen statements of the
PRICA consist of 7 negative and 7 positive items involving the levels of individuals’
communication apprehension when interacting with a person or people from different
culture. Therefore, this study considered that higher scores in the sum of the 7 positive
items subtracted from the sum of the 7 negative items reflect lower levels of ICA. The
high and low levels of ICA of each participant were determined by using cut-offs of one
standard deviation. With the criterion of the sample mean, then, while the participants
whose scores were one standard deviation above from the sample mean were considered
people with low communication apprehension, the participants whose scores were one


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