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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 15 standard deviation below from the sample mean were regarded as people with high communication apprehension. Although Toale and McCroskey’s study (2001) in which the relationship between ICA and interethnic communication apprehension were investigated, thus similar to the goal of this study, ignored the people with medium ICA by considering them a standard of normal people without any problem involving ICA, this study employed all three levels of ICA: Low, medium and high levels. For the purpose of this study, comparing the relationship of ICA with ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies between U.S. and Korean students in resolving intercultural conflicts, the researcher decided to analyze all three levels of ICA. For the U.S. the sample mean of ICA was 15.03 (SD=10.81) ranging from -16 to 28, and for Korea that was 2.15 (SD=12.53) ranging from - 21 to 24. For the U.S. the number of the students with low ICA was 23, that of the students with medium ICA was 120 and that of the students with high ICA was 15. For Korea the number of the students with low ICA was 22, that of the students with medium ICA was 106, and that of the students with high ICA was 30. For ICMS, this study employed Wilmot and Hocker’s classification of five conflict management styles (2001). The ICMS scale consists of 25 items that are measured with 5-point Likert scale (1=never, 5=always). Each of 5 items reflects one of five conflict management styles. Avoidance style is to avoid or withdraw communication by denial of the conflict, equivocation, changing and avoiding topics, being noncommittal, and joking rather than dealing with the conflict at hand. Competition style is characterized by aggressive and uncooperative behavior, pursuing one’s own concerns at the expense of another, such as personal criticism, rejection, hostile imperatives, jokes

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
15
standard deviation below from the sample mean were regarded as people with high
communication apprehension.
Although Toale and McCroskey’s study (2001) in which the relationship between
ICA and interethnic communication apprehension were investigated, thus similar to the
goal of this study, ignored the people with medium ICA by considering them a standard
of normal people without any problem involving ICA, this study employed all three
levels of ICA: Low, medium and high levels. For the purpose of this study, comparing
the relationship of ICA with ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies between
U.S. and Korean students in resolving intercultural conflicts, the researcher decided to
analyze all three levels of ICA. For the U.S. the sample mean of ICA was 15.03
(SD=10.81) ranging from -16 to 28, and for Korea that was 2.15 (SD=12.53) ranging
from - 21 to 24. For the U.S. the number of the students with low ICA was 23, that of the
students with medium ICA was 120 and that of the students with high ICA was 15. For
Korea the number of the students with low ICA was 22, that of the students with medium
ICA was 106, and that of the students with high ICA was 30.
For ICMS, this study employed Wilmot and Hocker’s classification of five
conflict management styles (2001). The ICMS scale consists of 25 items that are
measured with 5-point Likert scale (1=never, 5=always). Each of 5 items reflects one of
five conflict management styles. Avoidance style is to avoid or withdraw communication
by denial of the conflict, equivocation, changing and avoiding topics, being
noncommittal, and joking rather than dealing with the conflict at hand. Competition style
is characterized by aggressive and uncooperative behavior, pursuing one’s own concerns
at the expense of another, such as personal criticism, rejection, hostile imperatives, jokes


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