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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 16 and questions, presumptive remarks, and denial of responsibility. Compromise style is an intermediate style resulting in some gains and some losses for each party, such as appealing to fairness, suggestion of a trade-off, maximizing wins and minimizing losses, and offering a quick, short-term solution. Accommodation style does not assert individual needs and prefers a cooperative and harmonizing approach in which one sets aside his or her concerns in favor of pleasing the other people involved by using such tactics as giving up and giving in, disengagement, denial of needs, and expression of desire for harmony. Collaboration style is a cooperative and effective mutual problem solving style, and it focused on mutual effort, partnership, or shared personal goals, such as descriptive, disclosing, and qualifying statements, solicitation of disclosure and criticism, supportive remarks, concessions, and acceptance of responsibility. Then, this study collapsed those five styles into two categories-cooperativeness and assertiveness-to further specify cultural differences in conflict resolution strategies. According to Volkema and Bergmann (1995), cooperativeness and assertiveness dimensions can be assessed by the following formula. Cooperativeness = (collaboration + accommodation) – (competition + avoidance) Assertiveness = (competition + collaboration) – (avoidance + Accommodation) The alpha reliability of the PRICA scale was .90 for the U.S. and .91 for the Korea. The alpha reliability of the ICMA scale was .84 for the U.S. and .87 for the Korea. Research questions RQ1: To what extent are intercultural communication apprehension related to intercultural conflict management styles and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies for U.S. and Korean students respectively?

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
16
and questions, presumptive remarks, and denial of responsibility. Compromise style is an
intermediate style resulting in some gains and some losses for each party, such as
appealing to fairness, suggestion of a trade-off, maximizing wins and minimizing losses,
and offering a quick, short-term solution. Accommodation style does not assert individual
needs and prefers a cooperative and harmonizing approach in which one sets aside his or
her concerns in favor of pleasing the other people involved by using such tactics as
giving up and giving in, disengagement, denial of needs, and expression of desire for
harmony. Collaboration style is a cooperative and effective mutual problem solving style,
and it focused on mutual effort, partnership, or shared personal goals, such as descriptive,
disclosing, and qualifying statements, solicitation of disclosure and criticism, supportive
remarks, concessions, and acceptance of responsibility.
Then, this study collapsed those five styles into two categories-cooperativeness
and assertiveness-to further specify cultural differences in conflict resolution strategies.
According to Volkema and Bergmann (1995), cooperativeness and assertiveness
dimensions can be assessed by the following formula.

Cooperativeness = (collaboration + accommodation) – (competition + avoidance)
Assertiveness = (competition + collaboration) – (avoidance + Accommodation)
The alpha reliability of the PRICA scale was .90 for the U.S. and .91 for the
Korea. The alpha reliability of the ICMA scale was .84 for the U.S. and .87 for the Korea.
Research questions
RQ1: To what extent are intercultural communication apprehension related to
intercultural conflict management styles and assertiveness/cooperativeness
tendencies for U.S. and Korean students respectively?


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