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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 27 ICA and ICMS between the U.S. and Korea, Volkema and Bergmann’s assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions (1995) were analyzed. Although this study adopted the PRICA scale, it attempted to expand McCroskey and his colleagues’ studies (1997, 2001) in which merely the differences between people with low and high ICA were investigated, by comparing all three levels of ICA including low, medium and high level in a cross-cultural setting. The findings of this study were as follows. First, in intercultural communicative conflict situations U.S. and Korean students showed different relationships between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions. That is, the relationships between ICA, ICMS, and assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions of individualistic and low- context culture (U.S.) are different from those of collectivistic and high-context culture (Korea): Cultural differences are operating in ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/ cooperativeness tendencies in managing intercultural conflicts. These findings seem to support previous findings of cross-cultural communication apprehension studies and cross-cultural conflict management studies, suggesting cross-cultural differences in communication apprehension and conflict management. Second, there were some significant differences and similarities between U.S. and Korean students’ levels of ICA and ICMS. That is, U.S. students were considerably less apprehensive than Korean students in intercultural conflict situations. This finding seems to match with Kim and her colleagues’ finding (2001) involving cross-cultural differences in communication apprehension. While Korean students used avoidance, accommodation and collaboration styles more frequently, the U.S. students used competition and compromise styles more often and they tended to be more assertive in managing intercultural conflicts than

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
27
ICA and ICMS between the U.S. and Korea, Volkema and Bergmann’s
assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions (1995) were analyzed. Although this study
adopted the PRICA scale, it attempted to expand McCroskey and his colleagues’ studies
(1997, 2001) in which merely the differences between people with low and high ICA
were investigated, by comparing all three levels of ICA including low, medium and high
level in a cross-cultural setting.
The findings of this study were as follows. First, in intercultural communicative
conflict situations U.S. and Korean students showed different relationships between ICA,
ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions. That is, the relationships between
ICA, ICMS, and assertiveness/cooperativeness dimensions of individualistic and low-
context culture (U.S.) are different from those of collectivistic and high-context culture
(Korea): Cultural differences are operating in ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/
cooperativeness tendencies in managing intercultural conflicts. These findings seem to
support previous findings of cross-cultural communication apprehension studies and
cross-cultural conflict management studies, suggesting cross-cultural differences in
communication apprehension and conflict management. Second, there were some
significant differences and similarities between U.S. and Korean students’ levels of ICA
and ICMS. That is, U.S. students were considerably less apprehensive than Korean
students in intercultural conflict situations. This finding seems to match with Kim and her
colleagues’ finding (2001) involving cross-cultural differences in communication
apprehension. While Korean students used avoidance, accommodation and collaboration
styles more frequently, the U.S. students used competition and compromise styles more
often and they tended to be more assertive in managing intercultural conflicts than


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