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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 3 intercultural communication apprehension will be discussed. Fourth, the theoretical background of conflict management style and cross-cultural conflict management studies will be stated. Fifth, the method and procedures of this study will be mentioned. Sixth, the findings of this study will be reported. Finally, conclusions and some suggestions for future study will be discussed. Cultural assumptions A number of comparative communication studies have shown that individualism- collectivism is the basic distinction between cultures (Bochner 1994; Cox, Lobel, & McLeod 1991; Earley 1994; Erez & Earley 1993; Gudykunst & Kim 1992; Hitchcock 1994; Singelis & Brown 1995; Sitaram 1995). In general, the basic value of western culture including U.S. culture is based upon individuality emphasizing individual rights, personal freedom, thinking of oneself, free expression, and open debate, whereas that of eastern culture including Korean culture is rooted in collectivity focusing on harmony, consensus, orderly society, rights of society, peace, and individual responsibility to others. According to Hofstede (1991,1984,1982,1980) individualism-collectivism is based upon “the degree of interdependence a society maintains among individuals” (Hofstede 1984, p.83). That is, individualistic cultures emphasize independence with a focus of “I.” Disagreements are openly and frequently expressed to resolve conflicts through direct communications. Individual goals, interests, or decisions dominate and moral involvement rather than social involvement are emphasized in those cultures. Individualistic cultures put weight on universal standards rather than in-group or out- group criteria. However, collectivistic cultures emphasize loyalty and cohesive in-groups with a focus on “we” and tend to avoid loss of “face.” In those cultures, harmony is

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
3
intercultural communication apprehension will be discussed. Fourth, the theoretical
background of conflict management style and cross-cultural conflict management studies
will be stated. Fifth, the method and procedures of this study will be mentioned. Sixth,
the findings of this study will be reported. Finally, conclusions and some suggestions for
future study will be discussed.
Cultural assumptions
A number of comparative communication studies have shown that individualism-
collectivism is the basic distinction between cultures (Bochner 1994; Cox, Lobel, &
McLeod 1991; Earley 1994; Erez & Earley 1993; Gudykunst & Kim 1992; Hitchcock
1994; Singelis & Brown 1995; Sitaram 1995). In general, the basic value of western
culture including U.S. culture is based upon individuality emphasizing individual rights,
personal freedom, thinking of oneself, free expression, and open debate, whereas that of
eastern culture including Korean culture is rooted in collectivity focusing on harmony,
consensus, orderly society, rights of society, peace, and individual responsibility to
others. According to Hofstede (1991,1984,1982,1980) individualism-collectivism is
based upon “the degree of interdependence a society maintains among individuals”
(Hofstede 1984, p.83). That is, individualistic cultures emphasize independence with a
focus of “I.” Disagreements are openly and frequently expressed to resolve conflicts
through direct communications. Individual goals, interests, or decisions dominate and
moral involvement rather than social involvement are emphasized in those cultures.
Individualistic cultures put weight on universal standards rather than in-group or out-
group criteria. However, collectivistic cultures emphasize loyalty and cohesive in-groups
with a focus on “we” and tend to avoid loss of “face.” In those cultures, harmony is


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