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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 4 pursued, conflict is avoided through indirect communications, and relationships are encouraged. Group goals, interests, or decisions dominate collectivistic cultures. According to Hofstede (1991), most Asian countries belong to collectivistic cultures, whereas most western countries are individualistic cultures. In particular, while Korea scored at18, the U.S. scored at 91 in the individualism-collectivism index in which larger scores point out higher individualistic trends. Although individualism-collectivism seems to work as a fundamental distinction between cultures, it broadly defines general value-differences between cultures. Hall (1977)’s notions of low-context and high-context cultures, however, focus on cultural differences in communication and communication processes that predominate in each culture. Hall (1977) first distinguished “context and code” in communication processes. Context is the environment, the situation, or the relational aspect in which the implicit and unformulated rules govern encode and decode of messages, whereas code is the explicit and formulated ways of messages ruling how messages is encoded and how audiences interpret. Then, he classified cultures into two categories, high-context culture and low-context culture, in terms of the communicative context. Hall (1977) argues, in high-context cultures most communications or messages are “either in the physical context, or internalized in the person while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message.” (p. 91) That is, communications in high- context cultures are typically short, pithy, and poetic, which can be understood by the members of in-group, resulting in the cohesion and unity of socio-cultural systems. The high-context cultures tend to avoid fundamental questions, be self-validating, based upon the concept of “polychronic time” which means “many things at a time,” and put more

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
4
pursued, conflict is avoided through indirect communications, and relationships are
encouraged. Group goals, interests, or decisions dominate collectivistic cultures.
According to Hofstede (1991), most Asian countries belong to collectivistic cultures,
whereas most western countries are individualistic cultures. In particular, while Korea
scored at18, the U.S. scored at 91 in the individualism-collectivism index in which larger
scores point out higher individualistic trends.
Although individualism-collectivism seems to work as a fundamental distinction
between cultures, it broadly defines general value-differences between cultures. Hall
(1977)’s notions of low-context and high-context cultures, however, focus on cultural
differences in communication and communication processes that predominate in each
culture. Hall (1977) first distinguished “context and code” in communication processes.
Context is the environment, the situation, or the relational aspect in which the implicit
and unformulated rules govern encode and decode of messages, whereas code is the
explicit and formulated ways of messages ruling how messages is encoded and how
audiences interpret. Then, he classified cultures into two categories, high-context culture
and low-context culture, in terms of the communicative context.
Hall (1977) argues, in high-context cultures most communications or messages
are “either in the physical context, or internalized in the person while very little is in the
coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message.” (p. 91) That is, communications in high-
context cultures are typically short, pithy, and poetic, which can be understood by the
members of in-group, resulting in the cohesion and unity of socio-cultural systems. The
high-context cultures tend to avoid fundamental questions, be self-validating, based upon
the concept of “polychronic time” which means “many things at a time,” and put more


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